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Rachel Berlin

Chapter 8 vocabulary

TermDefinition
acid A compound that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water; a proton donor.
indicator A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base.
base A compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; a proton acceptor.
nuetralization A chemical reaction between an acid and a base.
salt An ionic compound formed when an acid reacts with a base.
pH a measure of the hydronium ion concentration of a solution.
buffer A solution that is resistant to large changes in pH
electrolyte a compound that produces ions when it dissolves.
radioactivity The process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy.
radoisotope An isotope with an unstable nucleus.
nuclear radiation Charged particles and electromagnetic waves that are emitted from the nuclei of the cells.
alpha particle A positively charged particle, emitted by certain radioactive nuclei, made up of two neutrons; a helium nucleus.
beta particle An electron emitted by an unstable nucleus.
gamma ray A penetrating form of radiation emitted by an unstable nucleus.
background radiation nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment.
strong nuclear force The powerful attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus.
fission A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus is split into two smaller parts.
chain reaction a series of fission reactions triggered by neutrons released during the fission of a nucleus.
critical mass the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction.
fusion a nuclear reaction in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus.
plasma a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons.
solute A substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution.
solvent a substance in which a solute dissolves.
dissociation The separation of ions in an ionic compound as the compound dissolves.
dispersion the process of dissolving by breaking into smaller pieces.
ionization The process by which neutral molecules gain or lose electrons.
Created by: rachel.berlin