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Radiation Physics 1

Natural science is broken up into 2 parts which are physical and biological sciences.
physics the relationship between energy and matter.
astronomy the study of stars
geology earth and rocks
chemistry the study of the reaction of chemicals.
zoology study of animals
botany study of plants
virology viruses
anatomy study of structure
the standard unit of measurements are? length, mass, and time
length foot (conventional) 100 yds = 300 ft centimeter (CGS) meter (MKS) /metric
mass = weight pound (conv) gram (CGS) KILOGRAM (MKS) 1 kg = 2.2 lbs
time = duration seconds or fraction of seconds
derived units of measurement energy, power, work, force, momentum,velocity and acceleration vs. deceleration
energy is ? the ability to do work (force applied over distance) is measured in joule PE vs KE
power is ? rate of doing work measured in watts or kilowatts amperage x voltage = power
what is the path of electrons called? a circuit
what is current ? the flow of electrons which are measured by amperage
what is force ? push or pull
what is potential difference ? excess of electrons at the end of one end (-) and a defficency at the other end (+)
work joule
force newton
velocity speed
momentum product of mass of an object x velocity (speed)
gamma rays come from ? within the nucleus
R Roentgen is used for skin entrance exposure
air kerma Gray- Gy
coulomb unit of electrical quantity
absorbed dose dose received by pt. any type of radiation any type of matter Rad Gray 1 Gy = 100 Rad
linear line transfer has to do with what ? radiation report (REM) measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue. used to determine radiation weighting or quality factor
dose equivalent personnel dose measurement of quantity and quality for radiation exposure standard = Rem international = sV (sievert) 1s sV = 100 rem RAD (Gy)(absorbed dose /quanitity) x weighting factor = REM (sV)
radioactivity rate of decay (breakdown) of radioactive material
Curie Radium = Ci
becuerel uranium = Bq, international
half- life is broken down into physical and biological
half life physical the amount of time required for radioactive material to decay down to half its original strength
hal life biological once its in jested the amount of time it takes to excrete
matter is ? anything that occupies space and has mass = solid/ liquid/ gas
what are some forms of energy? potential and kinetic, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal
potential vs. kinetic energy potential is energy at rest and kinetic is energy in motion.
chemical energy released by chemical reaction
mechanical energy potential and kinetic
electrical energy movement of current ( flow of e- in a closed circuit)
thermal energy heat which is produced at target random motion of molecules, transferred- conduction, touching, convection (mechanical transfer from hot gas or liquid to another place) and radiation.
can mechanical energy be converted into electrical energy T or F ? true
unit of measurement for heat (or thermal energy) F/C/kelvin
nuclear (NM) gamma rays/ natural is contained in the nucleus
Xray electromagnetic/ man made is contained outside the nucleus
the electromagnetic spectrum is measured how? in wavelength and frequency
ionize or ionization means? gains or loses an electron
brems xrays below 70 kvp, happens within the tube where electrons dont have enough energy therefor losing energy
characteristic xrays above 70 kvp, has enough energy therefor electron cascading happens
what is newton's law of motion? inertia and force
what is inertia? property of matter that acts to resist a change in its state of motion
what is force? mass x acceleration
T of F for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction true
what is the law of conservation of energy and matter ? that energy can neither be created or destroyed but changed from one form to another
energy can be converted into matter T or F ? true
analysis looking at all the parts
synthesis putting things back together
scientific method paln, perform, research
hypothesis/ theory guess/idea
law once proven a thoery/ hypothesis becomes law
atoms start at what level ? the atomic level
what level does excitation take place ? happens at the atomic level
what are atoms? smallest particles that have all the properties of an element
what is an element? a substance that can not be broken down any farther without changing its chemical properties
what are soe types of atomic structures? greek, dalton, thomson, and bohr
what is a group or family on the periodic table ? a verticle column in the periodic. elements have similiar properties in a group
what are periods on the periodic table ? are the horizontal rows of elements. the period # signifies the highest unexcited energy level for that electron(in the outermost shell
proton + charged particle
nuetron no charge
elctron - charged particle, orbits outside the nuclues on shells
shell or orbit formula 2N squared, w/ N = shell number
mass# # of protons and nuetrons in nucleus
atomic # # of protons
ionization the gain or lose of an electron
what are causes of ionization ? exposure of matter to x or gamma exp matter to stream of e- spontaneous breakdown of radioactive nuclides
what are the radioactive nuclides ? actinium, thorium, uranium
physical vs. biological half life biological- inside the body physical- outside the body, loses strength
exposure of certain elements to light cuase ionization silver hylide crystals
isotope two atoms that hava the same # of protons but different number of neutrons
what are the two types of ionizing radiation ? electromagnetic and particles
electromagnetic radiation X ray and gamma photons
particulate radiation alpha, beta, and neutrons
what are two non- ionizing forms of radiation ? microwaves and R/F (MRI) waves
octet rule group of 8 e- in outmost shell can not chemically bind
valence determines chemical binding ability of atom
what is a covalent bond ? sharing of e-(s)
what is an ionic bond ? attraction
what is a molecule ? is an electrically neutral group of atleast two atoms in an definite arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bond
a molecule is also what ? the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more
what is a compound ? a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be seperated into simpler substances by chemical reactions
what is a substance ? a biological entity
Created by: eckoultd1972