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Social Psychology 3

Priming Example: Watching a scary movie at home may prime us to interpret furnace noises as a possible intruder
Belief Perseverance Persistence of one’s initial conceptions, as when the basis for one’s belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives
Misinformation effect Incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it
Controlled processing Reflective, deliberate, and conscious
Automatic processing Impulsive, effortless, and without our awareness
Overconfidence Phenomenon Tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs
Incompetence feeds overconfidence
Confirmation Bias Tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
Remedies for Overconfidence Give prompt feedback to explain why statement is incorrect For planning fallacy, ask one to “unpack a task” – break it down into estimated time requirements for each part Get people to think of one good reason why their judgments might be wrong
Representativeness heuristic Tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member
Availability heuristic Cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory
Counterfactual Thinking Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t
Illusory Thinking Our search for order in random events
Illusory correlation Perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists
Illusion of control Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable than they are
Misattribution Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source
Attribution theory Theory of how people explain others’ behavior Dispositional attribution Situational attribution
Inferring Traits Consistency Distinctiveness Consensus
Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior
Why Do We Make Attribution Errors Actor-observer perspectives Camera perspective bias Perspectives change with time
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The process by which one’s expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations.
Behavioral confirmation Type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations
embodied cognition The mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgments
regression toward the average The tendency for extreme behavior or scores to return toward the average.
dis-positional attribution attributing behavior to the person strengths
situational attribution attributing behavior to the environment
spontaneous trait inference An effortless automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone's behavior.
Created by: seanzy25
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