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PSY 317 Exam 1

Basics of Science, History & Branches of ABA; Behavior, Measurement, & Design

What is description? collection of facts about observed events that can be quantified, classified, & examined; possible relations among behavior and environment; create operational definitions
What is prediction? Relative probability that when one event occurs another event will or will not follow; based on repeated observation revealing relationships (correlation) between various events
What is control? Specific change in one event (DV) can reliably be produced by specific manipulation of another event (IV), ruling out other extraneous factors (confounds); In order to control: 1) correlation 2)IV has to come before change, 3) no confounds
What are the 6 scientific principles? Empiricism, Determinism, Experimentation, Replication, Parsimony, Philosophic Doubt
What is empiricism? objective observation of phenomena of interest; operationally define the objective, make it quantitative
What is determinism? universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events; things that happen in the world are predictable
What is experimentation? IV is systematically manipulated while the effects on the event of interest (DV) is observed
What is replication? repetition of experiments to determine the reliability and usefulness of findings; building evidence by repeating studies while looking under numerous environments, find variability
What is parsimony? Simple, logical explanations must be ruled out before more complex/abstract explanations are considered
What is philosophic doubt? continuous questioning of the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory/knowledge; hypotheses are always building
Who are the 4 major contributors to the study of behavior analysis? Thorndike, Watson, Pavlov, Skinner
Who is Thorndike? Cat in the Box Experiment – basics of reinforcement...more likely to engage in behavior that has a reward in some way; Law of Effect
Who is Watson? Moved psychology beyond studying consciousness & argued that subject matter should be studying observable behavior; founder of Behaviorism; looked at what humans actually do & focused on behavior that can be observed/measured; Little Albert experiment
Who is Pavlov? Conditioned reflexes/respondent behavior; famous experiment in which he conditioned salivation in response to a metronome in dogs; sound was the conditioned stimulus which eventually gave the same result as the meat powder (unconditioned stimulus)
Who is Skinner? Began the experimental branch of behavior analysis; radical behaviorism – attempts to explain all behavior, thoughts and feelings are behaviors, but are not caused by behavior (ex-Watson)
What is the Law of Effect? behavior that produces a favorable effects on the environment is more likely to be repeated
Who wrote The Behavior of Organisms and what was it about? Skinner: detailed the difference between respondent and operant behavior
What are private events and who coined this idea? Skinner: Not "special" (e.g. thoughts and feelings) and can be influenced by the same variables as public bevavior
What are the 4 major branches of Behavior Analysis? Behaviorism, Applied Behavior Analysis, Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Professional Practice
What is Behaviorism? Philosophy of the science of behavior; covers all of them
What is Applied Behavior Analysis? a scientific approach to improving socially significant behavior in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied & demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for improvement in behavior
What is Experimental Analysis of Behavior? basic research; discover principles of behavior; the rate/frequency of response is the most common DV; graphed data; research is highly controlled evaluations; important in finding social significance of an individuals life
What is Professional Practice? Provide behavior analytic services to consumers; design, implement, and evaluate behavior change programs that consist of behavior change tactics; Evidence based practice
What are the 7 Current Dimensions of ABA? Applied, Behavioral, Analytical, Technological, Conceptual, Effective, Generality
What does applied mean? Socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the participants (social, language, academic)
What does behavioral mean? Actual behavior that can be measured to enhance improvements; is behavior actually changing
What does analytical mean? Experimental control, functional relation is being demonstrated under ethical and social restrictions
What does technological mean? How we describe what we did, can it be replicated based off accuracy of writing
What does conceptual mean? Behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior; integrates everything
What does generality mean? Behavior occurs across time, occurs in other situations
What does effective mean? Must produce significant improvement in individuals life, not just statistical significance; noticeable change in the person’s overall life
Who are Baer, Wolf, & Risley? Wrote the first article in journal (?) Deemed some of the founding fathers of ABA
What is the difference between direct and indirect assessment of behavior? Indirect includes questionnaires, interviews, and rating scales whereas direct assessment includes direct observation of behavior as it occurs
What are the continuous response measures? Frequency, Rate, Duration, Latency, Interval-Relation Time, Intensity
What are the discontinuous response measures? Permanent products, Percent of Occurrence, Trials of Criterion, Partial/Whole Interval Recording, Momentary Time Sampling
What is frequency? # of times a behavior occurs
What measure is best for discrete behaviors? Frequency
What is rate? # of behaviors divided by unit time
What measure is best for speed behaviors? Rate
What is duration? How long the behavior lasts
What measure is best for endurance activities? Duration
What is latency? Amount of time between antecedent stimulus and start of behavior
What measure is used best when the behavior needs to be provoked? Latency
What is Inter-Response Time (IRT) Duration between 2 behaviors
What measure is best for behaviors that are linked together? IRT
What is intensity? Amount of force, energy, or exertion involved in a behavior
What is Percent of Opportunity? Total responses correct/total opportunity X 100
What measure is best for correct and incorrect responses (grades)? % of Opportunity
What is Trials of Criterion? # of trials to reach certain behavior/goal
What measure is best for measuring different procedures on the same behavior? Trials of Criterion
What is permanent products? Recording the tangible outcomes of behavior
What measure is being used when collecting homework sheets or when counting the number of plastic bags recycled? Permanent Products
What is partial interval recording? An overestimation of the # of times behavior occurs at least once during a set interval of time; expressed as a ratio or percentage of intervals in which behavior occurs
What is whole interval recording? An underestimation of the # of times behavior occurs for the entire interval during a set time; expressed as a ratio or percentage of intervals in which behavior occurs
When is it best to use interval recording? When you can look at the presence or absence of behavior
What is momentary time sampling? Record Responses as it occurs at the end of the interval
What is discrete categorization? Classify responses into discrete categories
What discontinuous measure is best used to train new behavior? Discrete Categorization
What is reactivity? When the process of recording behavior causes the behavior to change
How do you reduce reactivity? Desensitize participant to being observed, use observation mirrors or recording instruments
What is validity? Whether we measure what we think it should measure
What is accuracy? Produce true measurements; observed values match the true values
What is reliability? Measurement yields same value across repeated measurements
What is IOR/IOA? One type of reliability - consistency of measurement where 2 independent observers can agree upon 80% or higher of behavior; must have a good response definition
How do you use IOR/IOA for measuring frequency/duration? Small #/Large #
How do you use IOR/IOA for measuring interval recording? # of intervals agreed/total # of intervals
How do you use IOR/IOA for frequency within interval recording? Divide smaller # by larger # for each interval. Average the resulting percents
What are the 3 common types of graphs in ABA? Cumulative record, bar graph, equal interval line graph
What are the 4 common single subject designs? Reversal, multiple baseline, multi-element, changing criterion
What is visual analysis? The evaluation of an experimental/clinical manipulation via visual inspection of graphed data; cornerstone of ABA research and practice
Where does the IV and DV fall on a graph? IV (phase/condition) - horizontal x-axis DV - vertical y-axis
Who developed the cumulative record? Skinner
What is the cumulative record? Primary means of data collection in EAB lab research; enables the experimental subject to draw it’s own graph (each response moves the pen unit) and the line continuously increases in height (NEVER DECREASES)
What do the lines on a cumulative record represent? Stairs = behavior is occurring Flat Line = behavior is not occurring
The slope of the line on a cumulative record is an indicator of what? Response rate! Steeper the slope = higher response rate
What is the equal interval line graph? Most commonly used graph in ABA that tracks behavior across time
What do the x-axis and y-axis indicate on an equal interval line graph? x-axis = passage of time y-asix = DV
How does experimental design in ABA work? Repeatedly and systematically presenting and removing treatment (IV) while measuring the DV and holding all other factors constant
What is baseline data? Controlled condition; measure subjects performance before IV is implemented
What is a reversal/withdrawn design? Following baseline (A), the IV is introduced (B), then withdrawn A; if behavior changes systematically as a function of the introduction and withdrawal of the IV, the likelihood is small that some confound produced the behavior change
What is the prediction path in reversal design? When you have collected enough data so you can predict how behavior will continue to change when IV is introduced or taken away
What is the importance of verification in reversal design? After returning to baseline after Tx was introduced, the behavior should go back to original baseline level. If Tx = Baseline 2, then something else changed behavior OR behavior is permanent
What is the importance of replication in reversal design? Must reintroduce Tx to see if there is a replication of effects
What single subject design is best used when you can turn behaviors on/off? Reversal Design
What is multiple baseline design? 2 or more independent baselines are established; the IV is separately introduced to each baseline; when behavior is stable for the 1st baseline, the IV is introduced on the 2nd baseline; must maintain baseline across subjects, settings, and behavior
What single subject design is best used when you want to examine behavior in multiple settings using 2 or more baselines? Multiple Baseline Design
What is Multi-Element Design/Alternating Treatment Design? Repeated measurement of behavior while the two or more conditions alternate rapidly; look at differing levels of intervention; very brief phases
What single subject design is best used when looking at two or more treatments? Multi-Element/ Alternative Tx Design
What is changing criterion design? Treatment phase is divided into sub-phases, each involving a different behavioral criterion or goal; each sub-phase more closely resembles the target goal
What single subject design would best be used when trying to quite smoking? Changing Criterion Design
What are the general guidelines for the number of data points you should use in visual analysis? More the better; fewer data points are needed if it is a replication study; don’t want to be in data phases when it is flat forever!
What is variability? Up and down! How much data points differ from each other (i.e. how steep and “hilly” the graph looks)
What does it mean if graph has a lot of steeps/peaks? There is high variability, greater need for data, and harder to find significance
What is a level/mean shift? Mean/Median! Average of the data points; makes it more visually clear; make sure to look at overlap
What is trend? Directionality! The overall direction taken by the data path, best fit line; represents to direction and degree of trend that can either be increasing, decreasing, or zero (no trend)
Created by: draebarlaan