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PSYC 225

Chapter 6

emotional regulation the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
initiative versus guilt Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
self-concept a person's understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits, such as gender and size
intrinsic motivation a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent
extrinsic motivation a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem
imaginary friends make-believe friends who exist only in a child's imagination; increasingly common from ages 3 through 7, they combat loneliness and aid emotional regulation
psychopathology an illness or disorder of the mind
externalizing problems difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things
internalizing problems difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless
rough-and-tumble play play that mimics aggression through wresting, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm
sociodramatic play pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create
authoritarian parenting an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standard, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication
permissive parenting an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
authoritative parenting an approach to child rearing in which parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children
neglectful/uninvolved parenting an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives
sex differences biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shape
gender differences differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females
phallic stage Freud's third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
Oedipus complex the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers' exclusive love
superego in psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
Electra complex the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and with their fathers' exclusive love
identification an attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else
gender schema a child's cognitive concept of general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences
empathy the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own
antipathy feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person
prosocial behavior actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them
antisocial behavior actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person
instrumental aggression hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it
reactive aggression an impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical
relational aggression nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people
bullying aggression unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves
psychological control a disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feeling of guilt and gratitude to the parents
time-out a disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time
child maltreatment intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age
child abuse deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
child neglect failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
reported maltreatment harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities
substantial maltreatment harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified
permanency planning an effort by child-welfare authorities to find a long-term living situation that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, which can be particularly harmful to the child
kinship care a form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver
Created by: Nicolekr