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Management Test 1

Chapters 1-4

Collaborative Computing Using state-of-the-art computer software and hardware, to help people work better together.
Competitive Advantage The ability of an organization to produce goods or services more effectively than competitors do, thereby outperforming them.
Conceptual Skills Skills that consist of the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the parts work together.
Controlling Monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and taking corrective action as needed.
Databases Computerized collections of interrelated files
Decisional Roles One of three types of managerial roles; managers use information to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities. The four decision-making roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
E-Business Using the Internet to facilitate every aspect of running a business.
E-Commerce Electronic commerce—the buying and selling of goods or services over computer networks.
E-Mail Text messages and documents transmitted over a computer network.
Effective To achieve results, to make the right decisions, and to successfully carry them out so that they achieve the organization's goals.
Efficient To use resources—people, money, raw materials, and the like—wisely and cost effectively.
Entrepreneur Someone who sees a new opportunity for a product or service and launches a business to try to realize it.
entrepreneurship The process of taking risks to try to create a new enterprise.
first-line managers One of three managerial levels; they make short-term operating decisions, directing the daily tasks of nonmanagerial personnel.
four management functions The management process that “gets things done”: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
functional manager Manager who is responsible for just one organizational activity.
general manager Manager who is responsible for several organizational activities.
human skills Skills that consist of the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done.
informational roles One of the three types of managerial roles; managers receive and communicate information with other people inside and outside the organization as monitors, disseminators, and spokespersons.
innovation Introduction of something new or better, as in goods or services.
internal locust of control The belief that you control your own destiny.
internet The global network of independently operating but interconnected computers, linking hundreds of thousands of smaller networks around the world.
interpersonal roles Of the three types of managerial roles, the roles in which managers interact with people inside and outside their work units. The three interpersonal roles include figurehead, leader, and liaison activities.
intrapreneur Someone who works inside an existing organization who sees an opportunity for a product or service and mobilizes the organization's resources to try to realize it.
knowledge management Implementation of systems and practices to increase the sharing of knowledge and information throughout an organization.
leading Motivating, directing, and otherwise influencing people to work hard to achieve the organization's goals.
management The pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively by integrating the work of people through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization's resources.
management process Performing the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling necessary to get things done.
middle managers One of three managerial levels; they implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the first-line managers below them.
organization A group of people who work together to achieve some specific purpose. A system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people.
organizing Arranging tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work.
planning Setting goals and deciding how to achieve them; also, coping with uncertainty by formulating future courses of action to achieve specified results.
project management software Programs for planning and scheduling the people, costs, and resources to complete a project on time.
sustainability Economic development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
technical skills Skills that consist of the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field.
telecommute To work from home or remote locations using a variety of information technologies.
top managers One of three managerial levels; they make long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organization and establish the objectives, policies, and strategies for it.
videoconferencing Using video and audio links along with computers to let people in different locations see, hear, and talk with one another.
administrative management Management concerned with managing the total organization.
behavioral science Relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers.
behavioral viewpoint Emphasizes the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.
classical viewpoint In the historical perspective, the viewpoint that emphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently; it has two branches—scientific and administrative.
closed system A system that has little interaction with its environment.
complexity theory The study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems.
contemporary perspective In contrast to the historical perspective, the business approach that includes the systems, contingency, and quality-management viewpoints.
contingency viewpoint The belief that a manager's approach should vary according to—that is, be contingent on—the individual and the environmental situation.
evidence-based management Translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.
feedback receiver's expression of his or her reaction to the sender's message. Also, the information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affect the inputs; one of four parts of a system, along with inputs, outputs,& transformational processes
historical perspective In contrast to the contemporary perspective, the view of management that includes the classical, behavioral, and quantitative viewpoints.
human relations movement The movement that proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity.
inputs The people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization's goods or services.
learning organization An organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge.
management science Sometimes called operations research; branch of quantitative management; focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making.
open system System that continually interacts with its environment.
operations management A branch of quantitative management; focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.
outputs The products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization.
quality The total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs.
quality assurance A means of ensuring quality that focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects,”
quality control A means of ensuring quality whereby errors are minimized by managing each stage of production.
quality-management viewpoint Perspective that focuses on quality control, quality assurance, and total quality management.
quantitative management The application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations. Two branches of quantitative management are management science and operations management.
scientific management Management approach that emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.
subsystems The collection of parts making up the whole system.
system A set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.
systems viewpoint Perspective that regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts.
total quality management (TQM) A comprehensive approach—led by top management and supported throughout the organization—dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction.
transformation processes An organization's capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs.
total quality management (TQM) It has four components: (1) Make continuous improvement a priority. (2) Get every employee involved. (3) Listen to and learn from customers and employees. (4) Use accurate standards to identify and eliminate problems.
clawbacks Rescinding the tax breaks when firms don't deliver promised jobs.
code of ethics A formal, written set of ethical standards that guide an organization's actions.
competitors People or organizations that compete for customers or resources.
corporate governance The system of governing a company so that the interests of corporate owners and other stakeholders are protected.
corporate social responsibility (csr) the notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit, to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization.
customers Those who pay to use an organization's goods or services
demographic forces Influences on an organization arising from changes in the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, or ethnic origin.
distributor People or organizations that help another organization sell its goods and services to customers.
economic forces General economic conditions and trends—unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth—that may affect an organization's performance.
ethical behavior Behavior that is accepted as “right” as opposed to “wrong” according to those standards.
ethical climate A term that refers to employees' perceptions about the extent to which work environments support ethical behavior.
ethical dilemma A situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal.
ethics Standards of right and wrong that influence behavior.
external stakeholders People or groups in the organization's external environment that are affected by it.
general environment Also called macroenvironment; in contrast to the task environment, it includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international.
government regulators Regulatory agencies that establish ground rules under which organizations may operate.
individual approach One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by what will result in the individual's best long-term interests, which ultimately are in everyone's self-interest.
insider trading The illegal trading of a company's stock by people using confidential company information.
internal stakeholders Employees, owners, and the board of directors, if any.
international forces Changes in the economic, political, legal, and technological global system that may affect an organization.
justice approach One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity.
macroenvironment Also called general environment, in contrast to the task environment, it includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international.
moral-rights approach One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human beings.
owners All those who can claim the organization as their legal property.
philanthropy Making charitable donations to benefit humankind.
political-legal forces Changes in the way politics shape laws and laws shape the opportunities for and threats to an organization.
Ponzi scheme A scheme in which cash is used from newer investors to pay off older ones.
Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 Often shortened to SarbOx or SOX, established requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies and penalties for noncompliance.
social responsibility A manager's duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization.
sociocultural forces Influences and trends originating in a country's, a society's, or a culture's human relationships and values that may affect an organization.
special-interest groups Groups whose members try to influence specific issues.
stakeholders People whose interests are affected by an organization's activities.
strategic allies Describes the relationship of two organizations who join forces to achieve advantages neither can perform as well alone.
supplier People or organizations that provide supplies—that is, raw materials, services, equipment, labor, or energy—to other organizations.
task environment Eleven groups that present you with daily tasks to handle: customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, employee organizations, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special-interest groups, and mass media
technological forces New developments in methods for transforming resources into goods or services.
utilitarian approach One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by what will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
value system The pattern of values within an organization.
values Abstract ideals that guide one's thinking and behavior across all situations; the relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person's behavior.
whistle-blower An employee who reports organizational misconduct to the public.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) A group of 21 Pacific Rim countries whose purpose is to improve economic and political ties.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) A trading bloc consisting of 11 countries in Asia.
Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) Trade agreement involving the United States and Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua and which is intended to reduce tariffs and other barriers to free trade.
countertrading Bartering goods for goods.
culture The shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to a group of people.
dumping The practice of a foreign company's exporting products abroad at a lower price than the price in the home market—or even below the costs of production—in order to drive down the price of the domestic product.
e-commerce Electronic commerce—the buying and selling of goods or services over computer networks.
embargo A complete ban on the import or export of certain products.
ethnocentric managers Managers who believe that their native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior to all others.
European Union (EU) Union of 27 trading partners in Europe.
exchange rate The rate at which the currency of one area or country can be exchanged for the currency of another's.
expatriates People living or working in a foreign country.
exporting Producing goods domestically and selling them outside the country.
franchising A form of licensing in which a company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee and a share of the profit in return for using the first company's brand name and a package of materials and services.
free trade The movement of goods and services among nations without political or economic obstruction.
geocentric managers Managers who accept that there are differences and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices and that they should use whatever techniques are most effective.
global economy The increasing tendency of the economies of the world to interact with one another as one market instead of many national markets.
global outsourcing Also called offshoring; use of suppliers outside the United States to provide labor, goods, or services.
global village The “shrinking” of time and space as air travel and the electronic media have made it easier for the people around the globe to communicate with one another.
globalization The trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system.
GLOBE project A massive and ongoing cross-cultural investigation of nine cultural dimensions involved in leadership and organizational processes. Started by Robert J. House, GLOBE stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness
greenfield venture A foreign subsidiary that the owning organization has built from scratch.
high-context culture Culture in which people rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when communicating with others.
import quota A trade barrier in the form of a limit on the numbers of a product that can be imported.
importing Buying goods outside the country and reselling them domestically.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) One of three principal organizations designed to facilitate international trade: its purpose is to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations.
joint venture Also known as a strategic alliance, a U.S firm may form a joint venture with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign country.
licensing Company X allows a foreign company to pay it a fee to make or distribute X's product or service.
low-context culture Culture in which shared meanings are primarily derived from written and spoken words.
maquiladoras Manufacturing plants allowed to operate in Mexico with special privileges in return for employing Mexican Citizens.
Mercosur The largest trade bloc in Latin America with four core members—Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
monochronic time The standard kind of time orientation in U.S. business; a preference for doing one thing at a time.
most favored nation This trading status describes a condition in which a country grants other countries favorable trading treatment such as the reduction of import duties.
multinational corporation A business firm with operations in several countries.
multinational organization A nonprofit organization with operations in several countries.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) A trading bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
offshoring Also called global outsourcing; use of suppliers outside the United States to provide labor, goods, or services.
outsourcing Using suppliers outside the company to provide goods and services.
parochialism A narrow view in which people see things solely through their own perspective.
polycentric managers Managers who take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone.
polychronic time The standard kind of time orientation in Mediterranean, Latin American, and Arab cultures; a preference for doing more than one thing at a time.
tariff A trade barrier in the form of a customs duty, or tax, levied mainly on imports.
trade protectionism The use of government regulations to limit the import of goods and services.
trading bloc Also known as an economic community, it is a group of nations within a geographical region that have agreed to remove trade barriers with one another.
wholly owned subsidiary A foreign subsidiary, or subordinate section of an organization, that is totally owned and controlled by an organization.
World Bank One of three principal organizations designed to facilitate international trade: its purpose is to provide low-interest loans to developing nations for improving transportation, education, health, and telecommunications.
World Trade Organization (WTO) One of three principal organizations designed to facilitate international trade: its purpose is to monitor and enforce trade agreements.
Created by: arry80
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