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Pathology Unit 1

general terms, respiratory

QuestionAnswer
What do you look for in a CXR? -bony elements in tact -lungs fully expanded -cardiac contour within normal limits -symmetry
What are the purpose of lymph nodes? help fight infection by increasing in size to help produce more WBC (white blood cells).
Lymph nodes found in the chest are typically malignant or benign? benign
What is scar in lung tissue resulting from previous infection & are benign? granuloma
What shape are calcified granulomas? round shaped
What is the term "deviation departure from the normal"? anomalies
What is it called when the heart is on the right side and all other organs are in normal position? dextrocardia
What is sinus inversus? organs of the chest & abdomen are in mirror image reversal or the normal positioning (can be total or partial).
What does an azygos vein look like radiographically? an inverted comma
T/F: cystic fibrosis is a genetic defect from only one parent. false; it comes from both parents
What does cystic fibrosis affect? -the function of exocrine glands -lungs, pancreas, bile ducts
What disease includes pulmonary damage from hypersecretion of the bronchial glands? cystic fibrosis
How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed? sweat test
Why is a lung transplant not fully treatable for patients with cystic fibrosis? because it doesn't just affect the lungs, the exocrine glands are affected also.
With cystic fibrosis are the lungs over-inflated or under-inflated? hyperinflated (over inflated)
what is the medical term for an enlarged heart? cardiomegaly
How is the cardiothoracic ratio calculated? diameter of heart/widest diameter of chest
Once the cardiothoracic ratio is calculated, how is cardiomegaly determined? if the heart is >50% = cardiomegaly
What does CHF stand for? congestive heart failure
What is the cause of CHF? hypertension & heart disease
What are kerley lines? thin linear pulmonary opacities caused by any substance denser than air within the lung parenchyma? Also known as infiltrates
What are kerley lines a sign of? a pt. in and out of heart failure
What direction do Kerley A lines run? more diagonal
What direction do Kerley B lines run? more horizontal
What Kerley lines are more lateral A or B? B
What disease is described as an irreversible over-aeration or dilation of air spaces accompanied by destruction of walls of the alveoli? emphysema
What does emphysema look like radiographically? oversized lungs; barrel-shaped chest; lung bases are more flat
For a patient who has been diagnosed with emphysema, and you are using film do you increase the kVp or decrease it? decrease because of increase in air in the lungs.
What is a bulla? an air-filled, thin-walled space with the lung (destruction of the alveoli)
What is a bleb? collection of air within the layers of viscera pleura
What is a cyst? closed, sac like structure that contains fluid, gas, or semisolid material
Out of bleb, bulla and cyst; which ones are associated with pneumothorax? cyst & bleb
Out of cyst, bleb and bulla; which ones are associated with emphysema? bulla
What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? refers to a group of disorders (emphysema and bronchitis) that cause persistent largely irreversible airway obstruction; leads to ineffective exchange of respiratory gases making it difficult to breathe.
T/F: COPD can be cured. false; there is no cure.
What does COPD stand for? chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What does COPD look like radiographically? *straightening of lung markings *pattern more dense, fibrotic changes *blunting of costophrenic angles (not sharp) *elongated heart
What is the study of diseases? pathology
what is the sequence of events that leads to the development of disease? pathogensis
What is the study of disease causes? etiology
What is a structural or functional change judges to be abnormal? disease
What is the term used when structural changes are caused by external agents? exogenous
What is the term used when structural changes are caused by internal agents? endogenous
What is the term used when the cause is unknown? idopathic
Is cellulitis endogenous, exogenous or idopathic? exogenous
Is club foot endogenous, exogenous or idopathic? idopathic
Is pneumonia endogenous, exogenous or idopathic? exogenous
Are allergies endogenous, exogenous or idopathic? endogenous or exogenous
Is an aneurysm endogenous, exogenous or idopathic? endogenous
What is term used when a disease is acquired while in the hospital? HAI-hospital acquired infections
What is the older term for HAI? nosocomial
What is the term to describe adverse responses that occur from medical treatment? Iatrogenic
What is the difference between signs and symptoms? *Signs= changes in the pt. interpreted by the doctor or another healthcare worker *Symptoms= changes in health perceived by the pt.
Is nausea a sign or symptom? symptom
Is vomiting a sign or symptom? both
What does asymptomatic mean? revealing no symptoms
What is the difference between a test and a procedure? *test: analysis of specimens (blood, urine, spinal fluid) *procedure:requires additional manipulation of pt.
What is the term used for a sudden onset of symptoms which may be severe and last only a short time? acute
What is the term used for slower onset and persists for a longer time? chronic
What does anoxia mean? no oxygen
What is the term for reduced oxygen? hypoxia
What is deficient blood in the muscle? ischemia
What is the term used for an area of dead or necrotic tissue called? infarct
What is the term used for a blood clot? thrombus
What is any foreign matter that may travel through the blood obstructing blood flow? embolus
What is the term used to describe progressive wasting of any part of the body? atrophy
What is the term used for the death of cells? necrosis
What is the determination of the nature of the disease? diagnosis
What diagnosis is based on sign, symptoms, tests and procedures? medical diagnosis
What is the diagnosis that sometimes different diseases have the same symptoms? differential diagnosis
What is the diagnosis that is based on signs and symptoms? clinical diagnosis
What is the predicted outcome of the disease? prognosis
What factors is the prognosis dependent on? *type of disease involved *the stage at which it was discovered *general health of the pt. *state of medical art at the time
What are the two types of repair? *regeneration *fibrous connective tissue repair
What is the difference between regeneration and fibrous connective tissue repair? regeneration repairs tissue with identical structure and function; FCTR replaces with dense, tough mass of connective tissue that develops a scar, it does not have the same structure or function.
What is a functional disease? any disease that presents no lesion (sore).
What are the 3 categories of functional diseases? *psychosis *neurosis *psychosomatic
What are the 6 types of structural diseases? *congenital/hereditary *inflammatory *degenerative *metabolic *traumatic *neoplastic
What are diseases that are present at birth and result from genetic or environmental factors? congential
What are diseases caused by developmental disorders genetically transmitted from either parent to child? hereditary
Can a disease by congenital but not inherited? yes, may have been acquired from the environment in the uterus. ex: maternal infection, radiation or drugs
What diseases result from the body's reaction to a localized injurious agent? inflammatory diseases
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation? 1)redness to skin 2)pain 3)swelling (edema) 4)heat (fever) 5)loss of function
What is the result from invasion by a micro-organism? infection
What is the result from poisoning of biologic substances? toxic diseases
What is an overreaction of the body's own defenses? allergic diseases
What is it called when capillaries become engorged and dilated with blood? congestion
What promotes leakage of fluids and protein into the tissues and allows for the infiltration of leukocytes? congestion
What is it called when leukocytes engulf and digest bacteria and help remove it from the area? phagocytosis
Abscess and cellulitis are both examples of what? inflammatory lesions
What is a localized collection of pus? abscess
What is cellulitis? spreading, diffuse infection of the subcutaneous tissue
What is an exudate? results in the formation of a blister or scab; it involves a cloudy, thick protein rich fluid
T/F: transudates have a high protein content? False; they have a low concentration of protein.
What is a transudate? serum fluid that passes through a membrane or tissue due to increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased osmotic pressure.
What usually causes degenerative diseases? aging
What can cause degenerative conditions? *deterioration of the body usually associated with aging *injury *heredity *diet *environmental factors
What is metabolism? the sum of all physical & chemical processes in the body
What regulates your metabolism? endocrine glands
What are the major endocrine glands? *adrenal *pituitary *parathyroid *thyroid *pancreas *ovaries/testes
How do endocrine glands regulate metabolism? secrete hormones into bloodstream
What is a term for a bruise; bleeding into tissue spaces as a result of capillary rupture? contusion
T/F: the more rapidly a cell reproduces, the more likely it is to have growth disturbance. true
What are the two growth disturbances? 1- hyperplasia 2- neoplasia
Which growth disturbance involves increase # cells, is a reaction to an external stimulus, once the stimulus is removed the proliferation regresses? hyperplasia
What often occurs with hyperplasia? hypertrophy
Which growth disturbance results from a genetic change that produces a single population of proliferative cells? neoplasia
What are the two types of neoplasm? *benign *malignant
What kind of neoplasm is non-invading and seldom lethal? benign
What kind of neoplasm has uncontrollable growth, invades surrounding tissue, and is a reversion to primitive type of cell? malignant
What is the term to describe the spread of malignant cancer cells? metastasis
What term is used when cancerous cells travel to a distant site? seeding
What term is used when cancerous cells spread into surrounding tissue by virtue of the close proximity? invasive
What type of tissue lines body spaces, surfaces, and glands? epithelial
What type of tissue consists of axons and supporting cells (brain and spinal cord)? nerve
What type of tissue consists of long, slender cells that contract and provide movement? muscle
What type of tissue binds, supports, and connects tissue cells? connective
What type of cancer is of the epithelial tissue? carcinoma
What type of cancer is of the connective tissue? sarcoma
What type of cancer is of the blood producing tissue? leukemia
What type of cancer is of the lymph tissue? lymphoma
What is the # of persons dying per year? mortality rate
What is the frequency of disability within a population? morbidity
What is the # of newly diagnosed cases in a 1-year period? incidence
What is the # of individuals with a particular disease at any point in time? prevalance
What is endemic? high prevalence of disease in a specific area ex: St. Louis; San Francisco
What is the spreading rapidly beyond the locality? epidemic ex: MO/IL area
What is pandemic? disease occurring over a wide geographic area. ex: in the US
What is the pathology where there is air in the chest cavity; lungs are not fully expanding? pneumothorax
What are the causes of pneumothorax? 1)ruptured blebs- air filled blisters rupture and air moves from sac into pleural cavity 2)trauma-stab wounds 3)spontaneous pneumothorax-no explanation
What is the collapse of all or part of the lung due to failure of lung expansion? atalectasis
T/F: When a pt. has atelectasis you decrease technique. false; atelectasis is a plus density so you increase technique (decrease in air in the lungs).
What causes atelectasis? *foreign body in air passages *pressure from chest tumors *trapped sputum or mucous *other lung disorders
What is a ballooning of a weakened portions of an arterial wall? aneurysm
What is the most frequent cause of an aortic aneurysm? atherosclerosis
What does LDL stand for? low-density lipoprotein
What is "hardening of the arteries"? atherosclerosis
What are the two treatment plans for an aortic aneurysm? 1) "watchful waiting" 2) stent graft
What is the treatment for pneumothorax? chest tubes to remove air; stitch up the wound
What is the treatment for atelectasis? remove whatever is causing the blockage
What does subcutaneous emphysema look like radiographically? streaks of lucency outlining muscle bundles
What is subcutaneous emphysema? air in soft tissue
What causes subcutaneous emphysema? *penetrating or blunt injuries *some lung diseases
What does crepitation mean? a crackling sound or sensation
What are the 3 types of pneumonia? 1) Lobar (bacterial) 2) Lobular (bronchopneumonia) 3) Interstitial (viral)
What are the 5 cardinal symptoms of lobar (bacterial) pneumonia? *cough *sputum production *fever *pleuritic chest pain *chills
Which pneumonia mostly involves the alveoli? bacterial (lobar)
Which pneumonia is caused by a virus and no exudate in the alveoli? interestitial
Which pneumonia is normally bilateral and is inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles with extension into the alveoli? bronchopneumonia
What is acute infection of the lung parenchyma; often impairs gas exchange? pneumonia
What disease of the lungs is transmitted by inhalation of infected droplets? TB (tuberculosis)
What is the treatment for tuberculosis? depends on severity; pt receives 2-drug regimen for 2 months or longer
What does tuberculosis look like radiographically? patchy
What makes up the ghon complex? granuloma + calcified lymph node
ghon complex is commonly seen with what disease? emphysema
What is a localized area of neurotic lung tissue surrounded by inflammatory debris? lung abscess
What is the treatment for lung abscess? anitbiotic therapy and possible drainage
Out of cyst, abscess, and pneumatocele: What is a puss filled pocket caused from infection? abscess
What is any sac in the body filled with semi-liquid substance; can become active and become an abscess? cyst
What is a thin-walled air containing cyst of the lung? pneumatocele
Out of a pnuematocele, abscess, and a cyst which one is the worse because it carries infection? abscess
What pathology is a solitary pulmonary nodule, benign pulmonary mass and is a "popcorn calcification"? hamartoma
What is a collection of excess fluid in pleural cavity such as blood, pus, or serous fluid? pleural effusion
Is serous fluid an exudate or transudate? transudate
Is pus an exudate or transudate? exudate
What are some causes of pleural effusion? *CHF *plumonary embolism *renal failure *trauma
What is the pathology that is an infection caused by a yeast-like organism? histoplasmosis
Describe the two types of histoplasmosis. *primary acute: most common typically benign *chronic pulmonary cavitary: most serious and usually mimics TB.
Radiographically, what does metastatic lung cancer look like? cotton balls
What happens to lesions as they heal? calcify
Created by: mokapis