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Influenza

Non-antiretroviral Agents

QuestionAnswer
infects and replicates in the upper respiratory tract (epithelium)system b/c climate-cooler temperature influenza
influenza B that infect humans, spread via inhalation (droplets)
Amantadine, Rimantidine, Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), Zanamivir (Relenza) Anti-influenza agents
Amantadine (anti-influenza agent) prevent viral uncoding, blocks proton ion channels, active only against TYPE A INFLUENZA, eliminated unchanged in urine, 12-18 hrs, well absorbed, very significant incidence of resistance, cause CNS side effects
Rimantidine (anti-influenza agent) prevent viral uncoding, blocks proton ion channels,active only against TYPE A INFLUENZA, 4-10x more active in vitro, 24-36 hrs, liver metabolize then urine elimination(gets broken down before excreted)
Amantadine & Rimantidine adverse effects NVD, anorexia, CNS:nervousness, dizziness, insomnia, decrease concentration, lightheadness (worsened by antihistamines, anticholinergics)
Which anti-influenza agent cause dopamine effects: behavioral changes, delirium, hallucinations, agitation, seizures amantadine - interferes with dopamine receptors, has a lipid bilayer so it can cross into the BBB
Zanamivir (Relenza) & Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) (anti-influenza agent) active against both Type A & B influenza, prevent budding (viral release), inhibits viral neuraminidase (keeps virus attached to host cell) to keep virus from infecting other host cells
necessary for release of newly replicated viruses from the host cell viral neuraminidase
Zanamivir (Relenza:anti-influenza agent) given to pts > 7 yrs old,poor oral absorption so given via PO inhaler; nose/throat discomfort,bronchospasm,cough,decrease pulmonary fxn; renal excreted, do not use in pts w/airway disease (asthma, COPD, emphysema)
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu - anti-influenza agent) given to pts > 1 yrs old, PO, prodrug activated by hepatic kinases, renally excreted, 6-10hrs, NVD/abd pain less taken with food; high increase resistance
Neuraminidase Inhibitors Zanamivir (Relenza) & Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) (anti-influenza agents)
Influenza Resistance mutation in viral neuraminidase; many strains of influenza causing seasonal flu (H1N1) are resistant to amantadine/rimantadine
Immunization for influenza given yearly b/c high increase of resistance, influenza vaccine-highly effective
Created by: cburrows
 

 



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