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sectors primary secondary tertiary Quaternary
primary collecting and using natural resources - mining, fishing, farmer, logging, slaughtering
secondary industries that make or manufacture things by using raw materials - sculptor, factory worker, car manufacturer, engineering, hardware engineer, furniture maker
tertiary providing a service for people - distribution, medical surgeon, train-conductor, actor, singer, loaner, teacher, policeman, fireman, paramedic
quaternary research and development - scientist, physicist, astronomer, biologist, geologist, fashion designer, software development
globalisation definition the way companies, ideas and lifestyles are spreading around the world with increasing ease and interconnectivity
TNC definition trans national corporations. businesses with HQs in one country but with business operations in a number of others. - HSBC, Apple, Nokia, Nike, KFC, McDonald's, BMW, Mercedes Benz.
advantages of globalisation inward investment by TNCs provides new jobs and skills. TNCs bring wealth + foreign when they buy local resources, products and services (education/health/infra). promotes diversity, tolerance, understanding. raises awareness, faster reactions.
cont hilites global issues. Globalisation may help to make people more aware of global issues such as deforestation and global warming - and alert them to the need for sustainable development. positive multiplier
disadvantages of globalisation LEDCs exploited, profits are sent back to the MEDC where the TNC is based, Transnational companies, with their massive economies of scale, may drive local companies out of business, variety of goods, large range of markets. + of int std 4 var s.a ed or hp
cont absence of strictly enforced international laws means that TNCs may operate in LEDCs in a way that would not be allowed in an MEDC. They may pollute the environment, run risks with safety or impose poor working conditions and low wages on local workers.
cont threat to cultural diversity. might drown out local economies, traditions and languages + homogenise pop. eg, is that a Hollywood film is far more likely to be successful worldwide than one made in India or China, which also have thriving film industries.
cont If it becomes cheaper to operate in another country, the TNC might close down the factory and make local people redundant. Industry may begin to thrive in LEDCs at the expense of jobs in manufacturing in the UK and other MEDCs, especially in textiles.
key factors that have facilitated globalisation freedom of trade, growth of global trading blocs, new technologies, resources natural and man-made, improvements in transportation/communication, global media, labour availability and skills around the world, growth of TNCs
improvements in transportation larger cargo ships mean that the cost of transporting goods between countries has decreased. Economies of scale mean the cost per item can reduce when operating on a larger scale. Transport improvements also mean that goods and people can travel faster
freedom of trade organisations like the World Trade Organisation (WTO) promote free trade between countries, which help to remove barriers between countries.
Improvements of communications the internet and mobile technology has allowed greater communication between people in different countries.
Labour availability and skills countries such as India have lower labour costs (about a third of that of the UK) and also high skill levels. Labour intensive industries such as clothing can take advantage of cheaper labour costs and reduced legal restrictions in LEDCs.
global media people are aware of recent events so they can react quicker. people are influenced by other countries' traditions over media.
growth of TNCs because of skills and cheap labour availability, TNCs can produce cheaper goods for larger profits, making them richer and more powerful.
china's 3 main problems hindering development energy - China is using up too much fossil fuels by industrialising at a fast rate, population growth - china's population growth was too high (around 3-4 fertility rate) in the 70s meaning disease/feeding, after 1 child policy, it is too low,
cont environment (polluted by factories, sewage, desertification, dams)
how china is tackling population one child policy
when was one child policy introduced 1979
aim of one child policy to reduce pop growth. Previous Chinese governments had encouraged people to have a lot of children to increase the country's workforce. But by the 1970s the government realised that current rates of population growth would soon become unsustainable.
population growth of china in 1950s and now 1.9% , 0.7% now
one-child policy rules by persuading Han Chinese couples to not have more than 1 child through the use of penalties and restrictions. must not marry until late 20s. must only have 1 successful pregnancy. must be sterilised after the 1st child or must abort any future pregnancy
cont -would receive a 5% to 10% salary rise for limiting their family to one. -would have priority housing, pension and family benefits, including free education for the single child.
one-child policy punishments 10% salary cut. fine imposed would bankrupt many households. family would have to pay for the education of both children and the health care of all the family.
one-child policy exceptions rural area couples can have 2 children if first is girl because male strength is needed. ethnic minorities and couples who both lack siblings can have 2.
one-child policy benefits parents give a lot of attention to single child. slows down population growth(4.77 1970s to 1.64 2011). no overpopulation which would cause living standards to worsen, increase in poverty, difficult to feed everyone. better overall economic stability.
cont increased access to education, healthcare, childcare to families that followed the rule. better living standards, per capita income. increased saving rate. reduces unemployment.
one-child policy cons lots of pressure on child (little emperor syndrome). if couple gets daughter and she gets married, they lose her to her husband's family and they don't get support in the future. millions of girls abandones/aborted. gender imbalance (120b/100g 2007).
cont In 2000, it was reported that 90 per cent of foetuses aborted in China were female. shrinks workforce - shrank by 3m in 2011. estimated labor shortage of almost 140m by early 2030s. men outnumber women > 60m. in future, millions of men can't get married.
cont 4-2-1 families. W/ 1 child providing for 6 people in addition to him/her and their families, financial burden will be demanding. The policy has created a situation in China in which there are too few young people to support a growing, aging population.
China 2 facts 4th largest country in the world 9.6msqkm. pop 1.3b. 2nd largest economy. 56 different ethnic groups - Han 92%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan. minority ethnic groups live in remote areas like N and W. largest buddhist pop. >50% live in urban areas.
physical geography of China (RELIEF). as you go west, the land steps upwards. lowest areas along coast. Huabei Plain is largest area of flat land, very fertile. Next step up has mntn ranges + large deserts (20%). top step vast plateau of tibet vhigh (4km>sea on avg) himalayas southern border
RIVERS 1000s of rivers. Yellow 6th carries yellow silt - depositedin lower course of river, raising bed, flooding. Yangtze 3rd really busy like motorway for ships. dam, flooding. Xi busy flows to pearl river delta,1 of china's top industrial places.
CLIMATE range of climates due to size. north sub-arctic. far south in tropics. plateau of tibet very high so very cold. monsoon rain from SW. inland big temp diffs between summerwinter - large land masses heat up fast in summer cool fast in winter. cold deserts.
cont NE, cold quite wet. NW very dry. N dry. SW cold (very high) dry. SE mild and wet. Far SE tropical hot and wet.
history of china 2 facts 1966 Mao cultural revolution got rid of Old customs, culture, habits, ideas, religion banned. communist.
china major cities beijing, shanghai, chingqong, hong kong.
why is china moving into africa? .natural resources (last year China bought 50% of Sudan's oil) .budding market for Chinese cheap exports(china is africa's 3rd biggest trading partner, africa imports millions of cheap chinese goods every year) .help africa develop (loan angola $2b)
gain influence by giving aid no strings attached, building infra roads, bridges, power grids(78k ppl work in africa) set up many companies (800) .sent 1100 doctors to africa, allows africans to go to china for education.
how china aid differs to uk aid? chinese workers in africa dont get expensive perks. they stay onsite until work is done. quicker + cheaper than anything uk can offer. china provides aid with no political strings attached. china treats africa as equals.
cont. chinese state-run companies undercut western rivals and take projects they dismiss as too risky. eg CNOOC recently agreed to pay $2.3b to rebuild kaduna oil refinery in nigeria, a loss-making project which no western company would touch.
Created by: karspider



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