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DHS PS Mid-Term Rev

DHS PS Mid-Term Review

Force Any push or pull; measured in Newtons
CPE Chemical Potential Energy; the amount of energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms. Examples include foods, explosives, and flammable materials.
Rotation Circular motion around a center axis. Examples include a figure skater spinning, spinning a basketball, a top, etc.
Density Mass per unit volume; g/ml or g/cm3
Convection Method of heat transfer through fluids (liquids and gases) that involves less dense (warmer) portions rising.
Form a Hypothesis The 3rd step in the scientific method where testable statement is made. Example "If I pull this back X meters then the ball will travel X meters.
Constant Components of an experiment that do not change and are that same throughout. Examples include same amount of water, temperature, sunlight, time, etc.
Conduction Method of heat transfer that involves collision between atoms where atoms with greater KE collide into lower KE atoms and transfer some of their energy.
Doppler Effect The apparent change in pitch associated with the motion of an object or observer due to change in frequency
Work Force applied over a distance. If the object does not move, work was not done.
Observations The action or process of observing something or someone carefully or in order to gain information. All 5 senses can be used.
What are the colors in order of lowest energy to highest energy? ROYGBIV
Length The distance from one point to another. Measured in meters.
Power The rate at which work gets done. Measure in watts.
EPE Elastic potential energy is Potential energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, such as the stretching of a spring or rubber band.
Scientific Method An organized series of steps used to solve a scientific problem.
Test your hypothesis Step 4 where you construct a model, perform an experiment, or perform an investigation.
State the problem Step 1 where you decide which problem you will solve.
Thermal Energy the total potential energy and kinetic energy of an object or sample of matter that results in the system temperature.
Closed Circuit A circuit in which a conducting path is available for charges to flow. Example is turning a device on.
Conductor Any material that allows heat or electricity to easily pass through it.
Newton's Second Law An object will accelerate in the direction of the applied force depending on it's mass. A = F/m
Parallel Circuit A circuit in which there are multiple paths for charges to flow.
Model A representation of an object or event that is too big, small, expensive, dangerous, or slow to happen.
Relationship between frequency and wavelength As the frequency increase, the wavelength decreases by a proportional amount. Example: if the frequency is doubled, the wavelength will be halved.
Average Speed Total distance divided by total time.
1-Dimensional motion The motion of an object in one direction. Examples include a ball rolling across the ground or a puck sliding across the ice.
Compressional Wave A wave consisting of a series of compressions and rarefactions.
Acceleration The change in velocity over time. Measured in m/s2. Can involve speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction
Control The standard in an experiment that results are compare to.
Momentum The product of an object's mass times velocity.
Why is the sky blue? Light from the sun has only a little atmosphere to travel through during the day. The "blue" wavelengths are scattered the easiest off of dust and ozone particles giving the sky an appearance of blue.
Open Circuit A pathway in which one or more sections are broken. Example would include turning a device off.
Displacement The distance and direction an object ends up relative to where it began.
Law of Reflection The angle of incidence will always equal the angle of reflection.
Dependent Variable The variable that is measured in an experiment.
Friction The force that opposes motion between two objects in contact.
Instantaneous Speed The speed at any given point.
Independent Variable The variable that is manipulated.
Which EM wave has the longest wavelength? radio waves
Terminal Velocity The fastest an object can fall. Occurs when air resistance is equal and opposite to gravity.
Time Measure in seconds
Series Circuit A circuit in which charges can only move through one pathway.
Mechanical Waves Waves which require a medium. Examples include sound, water, seismic, etc.
Diffuse Reflection Reflection that occurs off of a rough surface cause parallel light rays to be scattered.
Short Circuit A circuit that provides essentially no resistance.
Hypothesis More than just an educated guess; a statement that can be tested.
9.8 m/s2 The rate at which all objects fall toward the surface of Earth.
Resistance The opposition to the flow of heat or electricity through a material.
Sound Intensity Measured in decibels. Follows the inverse square law in which if you double the distance from the sound source, the intensity will be 1/4th.
GPE Gravitational Potential Energy is determined by how high an object is elevated above the Earth's surface. Calculated as GPE = mgh
KE Kinetic Energy is determined by an object's mass times the square of it's velocity. KE = 1/2mv2
Gather Information The 2nd step of the scientific method.
Accuracy Measure close to true value. Example: If a board is about a foot long, it would be accurate to measure 12 inches.
Concave A type of mirror or lens in which the surface curves inward.
Draw Conclusions The 6th and final step of the scientific method in which you determine whether or not your hypothesis was supported.
Radiation A method of heat transfer in which EM wave transfer energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
Newton's First Law Objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion remain unless acted upon by an outside, unbalance force.
2-Dimensional Motion Motion that involves two dimensions. Example: a thrown object, a turning car, etc.
Specific Heat The amount of energy needed to raise 1 kg of material by 1 K.
Circular Motion The motion of an object in a circular fashion such as a merry-go-round.
Analyze the Data The 5th step of the scientific method where you take the data from your experiment and organize it into a graph.
Static Electricity The build up of excess electric charges on an object.
Transverse Wave A wave that has crests and troughs.
Bias When what a scientist expects affects the outcome of the experiment.
Speed of EM Waves All EM waves travel at the speed of light which is 300 km/s in a vacuum.
3-Dimensional Motion The motion of an object in all 3 dimensions. Examples include a curve ball, a roller coaster ride, a fish in a fish tank, and bird in the air, etc.
Revolution When an object moves around another in a circular fashion. Examples include the moon around Earth, discuss throw, etc.
Mass The amount of matter in an object measure in grams.
Refraction The bending of a wave through a material.
Newton's 3rd Law For every action there is an equal an opposite reaction.
Smooth/Regular Reflection Type of reflection in which light rays are reflect back in a parallel fashion off of a smooth surface.
Joules Unit that energy is measure in.
Kelvin SI unit to measure temperature. O K is absolute zero in which all particle motion stops.
Diffraction The bending of a wave around an object.
Current The flow of charges through a circuit measure in amperes.
Uniform Circular Motion The motion of an object in a circle at a constant speed.
Volume The amount of space an object occupies.
Balanced Forces When forces that are equal in size but opposite in direction act on the same object.
Precise The degree of exactness. Example would be 2.456734 m instead of just measuring 2 m.
Air Resistance A friction-like force that opposes the motion of objects as they move through the air.
Periodic Motion The motion of an object in a repeated fashion. Example: grandfather clock, leaky faucet, child on a swing, etc.
Inertia The measure of an object's resistance to any change in motion.
Centripital Acceleration The change in motion that occurs whenever an object changes direction such as on a roller coaster ride.
Microwaves Band of EM waves that are used for communication and cooking food.
Velocity Speed in a given direction.
SI International System of Units used around the world as a standard set of measurements.
Newtons Units used to measure force.
Centripital Force The force required to make an object change it's direction.
Convex A lens or mirror in which the surface curves outward.
Temperature A measure of the average KE of the particles in a material.
Why are sunsets red? When the sun is low in the sky along the horizon, the light from the sun has more atmosphere to travel through. This scatters the "blue" long before the remaining "red" colors reach your eyes.
Created by: basmith