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kinetic parameters

Pharmacokinetics

TermDefinition
rate of reaction the rate of a chemical reaction is the velocity with which the reaction occurs
if amount of drug A decreases with time the rate of reaction is negative
if amount of drug B increases with time the rate of reaction is positive
order of reaction the way in which the concentration of reactants influences the rate of the reaction
zero-order reaction linear C = -k0*t + C0 amount of drug eliminated over time is the same
significance of zero-order reaction important for saturable reactions
first order reaction if the amount of drug A is decreasing at a rate that is proportional to the amount of drug A remaining log C = -kT/2.303 + log C0
significance of first order reaction most kinetic processes in the body like drug transport, clearance and metabolism are first order
t/f in zero and first order reactions rate and rate constants are the same false- first order reactions rate and rate constants are different
what are the units for zero and first order reactions K (rate constant) zero- mass/time first- time^-1
t/f zero order reactions are dependent on mass false- rate is independent on mass
t/f first order reactions are dependent on mass true
t/f zero order reactions rates are constant for entire reaction true
t/f first order reactions rates change as well as the rate constant false. the rate constant is constant, the rate changes
volume of distribution fluid volume that would be required to contain all the drug in the body at the same concentration measured in the blood or plasm- apparent volume of fluid in which the drug is dissolved
significance of volume of distribution Vd Vd > 100% of total body weight indicated drug is concentrated in extravascular tissues- Cplasma is low; low Vd indicates drug is concentrated in vascular compartment, Vd is constant for each drug except under certain pathological conditions
clearance volume of plasma fluid that is cleared of drug per unit time
clearance is expressed as expressed as mass or volume or fraction of drug eliminated per unit time
extraction ratio measure of an organ's ability to remove the drug
organs that are highly efficient at eliminated drugs have an extraction ratio of one
clearance from any organ is determined by two factors blood flow (Q) and extraction ratio (E)
significance of clearance index of the capacity for drug removal by the body organs, most important concept to consider when designing a rational regimen for long-term drug administration
clearance depends on conditions that alter blood flow to liver or kidney, hepatic and renal diseases that alter elimination
elimination rate constant represents the fraction of drug removed per unit of time
most drugs are eliminated from plasma by which order first order
half life time required for the amount or concentration of a drug in plasma to decrease by one half
A drug's half life is related to its duration of action, indicated when the next is to be given
zero order half life proportional to initial amount or concentration of drug and inversely proportional to zero-order rate constant, not used clinically
first order half life constant and is independent of initial amount or concentration of drug but inversely proportional to rate constant, clinical practice
area under the curve represents the area under the plasma concentration vs time- reflects the total amount of active drug that reaches systemic circulation
Created by: 1614571257
 

 



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