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Psych Exam #1

The _____ tells us the probability of getting the data pattern we did purely by chance. p-value
If results are not consistent with a prediction, then the underlying hypothesis is _______. disconfirmed
A ____________ allows investigators to assess the consistency of the results of numerous studies in quantitative terms. meta-analysis
If you use the very same participants for experimental and control groups, this is a _______ comparison. Using different control groups makes it a ________ comparison. within subject; between subject
_________ looks at the degree to which a study is successful at measuring what it is supposed to measure. internal validity
The direction of causality is not always easily determined in _______ studies. correlational
In many cases, variables can't be experimentally controlled, so we must turn to a(n) _______. observational study
A calculation that takes the effect size, variability, and number of observations and determines the degree to which an observed difference in sample means reflects a real difference in population means and is not attributable to chance is called: statistical significance
The difference between the control and experimental groups is noted by the _______. effect size
A ________ is a graph depicting the relationship between interval or ratio scale variables, with each axis representing one variable. scatter plot
____ is the degree to which individual scores in a data set differ from one to the next. variability
A correlation coefficient is a number that expresses both the ____ and ___ of a correlation. strength; direction
____ distributions help describe the data we've collected by showing two characteristics of the data set, the ____ (or average score of the data set) and the ____. frequency; mean; variability
Sometimes there are cues in a study called ____ that signal that one response is more desirable than another. demand characteristics
Psychologists would use ___ sampling when they were interested in deliberately seeking out the unusual cases to look at how diverse the population can be. maximum variation
A ____ arises when some observations are more likely to be reported than others. report bias
In systematic data collection, we need to avoid ____ and ____. confirmation bias and anecdotal evidence
When we look for evidence that supports our view, and ignore contrary evidence, we are engaging in _________ confirmation bias
The conception of organisms as machines can be traced to the great French philosopher _____ Rene Descartes
According to Descartes, excitation from the senses leads to muscle contraction in what we now call a _____ reflex
Descartes attributed our flexibility in responding (the choices we make), not to reflexes, but to the ____. soul
The new system that is devoted to the study of the nervous system is called _____. neuroscience
the individual nerve cells that collectively make up the nervous system are called neurons
the other basic cells in the nervous system, more common than neurons, are called ____. glia
the means though which individual neurons communicate with each other is called a _____. nerve impulse
_____ neurons carry information exiting the brain to some destination outside of the CNS. efferent
____ neurons carry information arriving in the brain and keep the nervous system informed about the body's internal environment and the external world afferent
the axons of ____ neurons transmit messages from the brain to the muscles or glands motor
specialized _____ cells that respond to stimulation from the outside environment ____ the physical stimuli into nerve impulses. receptor; transduce
when the neuron's cell membrane is depolarized beyond its _____ by an adequate stimulus, an _____ results. excitation threshold; action potential
ion ___ and ion ___ maintain the cell's resting potential. the opening of the ion __ are responsible for the sharp voltage change called the action potential. pumps; channels; channels
cells that are found in the early stages of an organism's development that have not yet begun to specialize or differentiate in any way are called ____ cells. stem cells
In this system, neurons can regenerate their axons after the original axon was severed, but in the human _____ system this regrowth after damage does not seem to occur peripheral nervous; central nervous
the birth of new neurons is called ____, but this process is limited in the adult brain presumably due to the need for biological ____ in the brain, so we do not lose skills and knowledge we have already acquired. neurogenesis; stability
cortical ___ may occur when a person receives a lot of practice at a task. more brain tissue is assigned for the task, presumably because tissue has been ___ from some other task. reorganization; reassigned
changes in neuronal connections can be achieved when individuals neurons alter their ____ by changing the amount of neurotransmitter they release. output
changes in neuronal connections can be achieved when individuals neurons change their ____ by chaining how sensitive they are to neurotransmitters by gaining new receptors from learning. input
neurons can create entirely new ______, producing new ___ in response to new patterns of stimulation connections; synapses
the brain's capacity to alter its structure and function is called brain ____. plasticity
after suffering damage to the ____ area of his frontal lobe, a person who has been sorting blocks by color continues to sort by color even after he's been told sorting by color is incorrect. This is an example of: prefrontal; perseveration
A person who utters sentences with large gaps after suffering a stroke may be diagnosed with a(n) _____. non-fluent aphasia
a person who utters sentences such as "I was over the other one, then after they had been in the department, I was in this one" after suffering a stroke may be diagnosed with ______. fluent aphasia
a woman who puts her makeup only on the right side of her face, and fails to comb the lest side of her hair after suffering a stroke, may be diagnosed with _______ neglect syndrome
a person who can describe the bristles and long handle of their toothbrush, but cannot name it after having a stroke may be diagnosed with ______. visual agnosia
a smoker who suffers a stroke and can no longer put together the appropriate actions to light his cigarette may be diagnosed with ______. apraxia
damage to the frontmost part of the frontal lobe, called the ____ area, may impair a person's executive control over his or her own thinking. prefrontal
What is the tendency to continue to act according to an initial rule, despite explicit feedback that they are now doing the task incorrectly. perseveration
a disorder of attention usually due to damage in certain areas on the right side of the ___ lobe which leaves personas inattentive to stimuli to their left and results in them ignoring the left side of their body is called: parietal; neglect syndrome
Disruptions in the production or comprehension of speech, usually produced by lesions in the ___ hemisphere, are called ______. left; aphasias
When the production of speech is disrupted due to damage in _____ area in the ___ lobe, it is called a ______. Broca's area; left frontal; non-fluent aphasia
When the comprehension of speech is disrupted usually due to damage to _____ area in the ____ lobe it is called a _______. Wernicke's area; left temporal; fluent aphasia
A disruption in the way a person perceives the world, without the loss of basic sensory capacities, is called ______ agnosia
when people lose the ability to recognize what they see, usually due to damage in the ____ lobe, it is called ______. When this type of disorder involves a deficit in face recognition it is called: occipital; visual agnosia; prosopagnosia
___ are serious disturbances in the initiation or organization of voluntary action produced by lesions in certain cortical areas, often in the _____ lobes apraxias; frontal
___ areas are involved in complex processes broadly referred to as thinking, remembering, and speaking. some areas function as additional ___ projection areas association; non-primary
the ____ area, located in the temporal lobe, is where adjacent brain areas represent similar ranges of pitch. auditory projection
each portion of the body surface is represented in the _____ area located primarily in the ___ lobe primary somatosensory; parietal
in the cortex, mapping of the body surface and the input from the sense organs in the head is established in the ______ area primary sensory
in humans, the greatest amount of cortical space for motor functions is assigned to the ___ and ___ which can move with the greatest precision. fingers; tongue
the control of body movement as represented in the cortex is represented in the _____ area, located where? primary motor projection; frontal
sensory information and motor control for one side of the body is on the opposite side of the brain. this is called what? contralateral
areas where the brain tissue seems to form a map of sensory information are called ____ areas. projection
there is evidence that in most individuals, the left hemisphere specializes in ____, and the right hemisphere in ____ functions. language; spatial
a right-handed split-brain patient would probably not be able to name a common object placed in his or her ____ hand. left
the ____ is a major commissure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. corpus callosum
the asymmetry of function in the human cerebral cortex is described as what? lateralization
a subcortical brain structure in the temporal lobe that plays a pivotal role in learning and memory and our navigation in space is called what? hippocampus
the structure of the brain that plays a central role in modulating our emotional reactions and the evaluation of stimuli to determine familiarity, safety, and so on, is called the ______ amygdala
a group of interconnected subcortical structures form the ___ system, which is involved in emotional and motivation activities and aspects of learning and memory. limbic
the structure of the brain that plays a vital role in the control of the ANS, the endocrine system, and the major motivated behaviors of eating, drinking, and sexual activity is the ___. hypothalamus
subcortical structures include: thalamus; hypothalamus; limbic system; amygdala; hippocampus
the primary visual projection area is located where? occipital lobe
the primary auditory projection area, and subcortically, the amygdala and hippocampus, are located in the ____ lobe temporal
the primary sensory projection area is located in what lobe? parietal lobe
the motor projection area is located in what lobe? frontal lobe
the ___ fissure divides the frontal lobes from the temporal lobes lateral
the ____ fissure decides the brain into two halves. longitudinal
the thin, outermost layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres is called the _____, which contains ____ (wrinkles) and ___ (deep grooves). cerebral cortex; convolutions; fissures
the largest part of the human brain is the ____, which includes the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. forebrain
located on top of the midbrain, the ___ serves as a relay station by directing information to the forebrain where it is more fully processed and interpreted thalamus
located behind the brain stem, the ___ is involved in controlling balance and coordinating moves cerebellum
located above the medulla, the ___ controls the brain's overall level of attentiveness and help govern the timing of sleep an dreaming pons
located at the bottom of the brain stem, the ___ controls life sustaining functions such as breathing and blood circulation medulla
the ____ is formed by the structures at the very top of the spinal cord brain stem
the ANS is divided into two branches: ____, which mobilizes the body's flight or fight response; and the ____, which restores the body's internal activities to normal and maintains a normal state of functioning sympathetic; parasympathetic
The parts of the nervous system outside CNS are called what. this system is divided into two parts: the __ which controls the skeletal muscles and carries info from the sense organs, and __, which controls nerves that regulate automatic internal activity peripheral nervous system (PNS); somatic divison, autonomic nervous system (ANS)
the CNS is protected by the ___ and ___, as well as by the __, which acts as a shock absorber for the brain skull; meniges; cerebrospinal fluid
the brain and the spinal cord together make up the ____ central nervous system
to look at the structure of the brain, this may be done which uses a series of X-ray pictures of the brain put together by a computer to create a composite portrait of the brain CT scan
a less invasive technique measures metabolic activity in the brain revealed by exposing the brain to a very strong magnetic field. this is called what? fMRI
a measurement of brain activity that looks at the rate of uptake in different brain areas of a radioactive substance is called a what? PET scan
brain activity can be measured by an __, a ___ scan, or an ____. EEG; PET; fMRI
brain electrical activity is measured directly with an ___, which can tell us about the activity of the brain overall, but not in particular areas of the brain EEG
the two principal ways of imaging the structure of the human brain are through a _____ and an ______ CT scan; MRI
brain tissue near the scalp can be temporality deactivated with brief magnetic pulses in the technique of _____. transcranial magnetic stimulation
in ____, experimental techniques and brain-imaging techniques are added to clinical observations to study how the brain functions and how brain damage alters that functioning. neuropsychology
to study the effects of brain damage, nervous tissue is damaged in a local area with techniques of ___ and ____ lesioning; transecting
a procedure for studying the nervous system by monitoring the moment-by-moment activity of individual neurons is called what? a procedure that uses micro electrodes to record the activity of individual cells and relies on a comp. to examine patterns is: single-cell recording; multi-unti recording
____ are chemical messengers that are distributed indiscriminately throughout the body via the bloodstream, whereas ____ exert their effects in a very limited area. hormones; neurotransmitters
The ____ consists of ___ that secrete __ into the bloodstream to affect organs elsewhere in the body. endocrine system; glands; hormones
the brain gets special protections from potential toxins in the blood through the action of the _____. blood-brain barrier
substances may be __ (produced naturally within the body) like endorphins, or substances may be ___ (intro ducted from outside the body) like cocaine endogenous; exogenous
some drugs impede a neurotransmitter's activity by __ themselves to the synaptic receptor that blocks the neurotransmitter from being able to find to the receptors. binding
some drugs enhance a neurotransmitter's activity by ___ the neurotransmitter and activating the receptors on their own. mimicking
drugs that enhance a neurotransmitter's activity are called __. drugs that impede a neurotransmitter's activity are called ___. agonists; antagonists
the idea that neurotransmitters affect only the postsynaptic neuron if their shape fits the shape of certain receptor sites on that membrane is called the ___ model. lock-and-key
neurotransmitters are eventually removed from the synapse by deactivation from ___ or by ___ enzymes; synaptic reuptake
excitatory neurotransmitters open __ channels in the postsynaptic neuron. ion
inhibitory neurotransmitters ___ the nerve's resting potential, whereas excitatory neurotransmitters ___ it. increase; decrease
whether a neuron fires is determined by the net result of its integration of ___ stimulation and ___ stimulation excitatory; inhibitory
__ are sites on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron which receive the specific neurotransmitters that fit in that particular site. receptors
chemicals released by the neuron, which can then trigger a response in another neuron, are called what? neurotransmitters
the tiny sacs within the axon terminals of a presynaptic neuron that contain the neurotransmitters are called ____ synaptic vesicles
electrical activity is transmitted across the synapse by __ (chemicals), from the ___ neuron to the ___neuron. neurotransmitters; presynaptic; postsynaptic
each neuron receives signals from ___ neuron(s). many
the gap between the avon terminals of one neuron and the dendritic spines of another is called the synapse
stimulus ___ is conveyed by both increases in the ___ of neurons firing and by the increases in the individual neurons' frequency of firing intensity; number
the ___ law states that the size of the action potential and its speed are independent of the intensity of the stimulus all-or-none
the disease ___ involves the deterioration of the myeline surrounding the neurons multiple sclerosis
the ___ of the propagation of the action potential would be relatively slow, except the __ wrapped around the axon allows the impulse to jump from one node of __ to another. speed; myeline; Ranvier
propagation goes in __ direction down the avon due to the ___ needed to regain resting potential. one; refractory period
the movement of the action potential down the axon is called what? propagation
when a neuron's membrane is disturbed, it loses the electrical charge that normally exists across the membrane; the neuron is then said to be ____ depolarized
the time after a action potential during which the cell membrane is unprepared for the next action potential is called the _____. refractory period
Created by: akasher