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WGU FST5 FOT: Schools & Society

Accountability The process of requiring students to demonstrate understanding of the topics they study as measured by standardized tests as well holding educators at all levels responsible for student performance
Assessment How student understanding is measured
Autonomy The capacity to control one's own professional life.
Curriculum The knowledge and skills that teachers teach and students are supposed to learn.
Decision-making Problem solving in ill-defined situations, based on professional knowledge.
Ethics Sets of moral standards for acceptable professional behavior.
Extrinsic rewards Rewards that come from outside oneself such as job security and vacations.
High-stakes test Assessments that states use to determine whether students will advance from one grade to another, graduate from H.S. or have access to specific fields of study
Intrinsic rewards Rewards that come from within oneself and are personally satisfying for emotional or intellectual reasons.
Merit pay A supplement to a teacher's base salary intended to reward superior performance or work in a high need area.
Professional portfolio A collection of representative work materials to document developing knowledge and skills
Professionalism An occupation characterized by a specialized body of knowledge with emphasis on autonomy, decision making, reflection and ethical standards for conduct.
Reflection The process of teachers' thinking about and analyzing their work to asses its effectiveness.
Reforms Suggested changes in teaching and teacher preparation intended to increase the amount students learn.
Standards Statements specifying what students should know and what skills they should have upon completing an area of study.
Technician A person who uses specific skills to complete well-defined tasks.
Academy A secondary school that focused on the practical needs of colonial America as a growing nation.
Assimilation A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
Character education A curriculum approach to developing student morality suggesting that moral values and positive character traits such as honesty and citizenship should be taught and rewarded
Common School Movement -1830-1860: Ignited by increase in transportation, manufacturing and immigrants led to poverty and crime. Citizens worried about the morals of the poor and the influence of their parents. School was agent for moral & social redemption.
Compensatory Education Programs Government attempts to create more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged youth. ie. Head Start, Title I.
Comprehensive High School A secondary school that attemptsto meet the needs of all students by housing them together and providing curricular options. Ie. vocational or college-prep programs.
English Classical School A free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys not planning to attend college.
Head Start A federal compensatory education program designed to help 3-5 y.o. disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn.
Junior High School Schools that were originally designed in the early 1900s to provide a unique academic curriculum for early adolescent youth.
Latin Grammar School Usually found in New England developed to help prepare boys for then entrance exam into Harvard w/ strong emphasis on Latin and Greek. Similar to how today's H.S. prepares students for college.
Magnet Schools Public schools that provide innovative or specialized programs that attempt to attract students from all parts of a district.
Middle Schools Schools, typically grades 6-8 designed to help students through the rapid social emotional and intellectual changes characteristic of early adolescence.
Normal Schools State funded schools specifically established for public teacher education. Provided the teacher with a lab for learning using model classrooms to practice their new skills
Old Deluder Satan Act A law passed in 1647 in the state of Mass makes reference to " chief object of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the knowledge of the Scriptures..."
Progressive Education An educational philosophy emphasizing curricula that focus on real-world problem solving and individual development.
Separate but equal A policy of segregating minorities in education, transportation and housing if opportunities and facilities were considered equal to those of non-minorities.
Title I A federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low income students in elementary and secondary schools.
Vouchers A check or written document that parents can use to purchase educational services.
War on Poverty A general term for federal programs designed to eradicate poverty during the 1960s.
Axiology The branch of philosophy that considers values and ethics.
Character Education A curriculum approach to developing student morality suggesting that moral values and pos character traits such as honesty and citizenship should be emphasized, taught and rewarded
Epistemology The branch of philosophy that examines questions of how we come to know what we know.
Essentialism An educational philosophy suggesting that a critical core of knowledge and skills exists that all people should possess.
Existentialism A traditional philosophy suggesting that humanity isn't part of an orderly universe; rather individuals create their own realities.
Idealism A traditional philosophy asserting that ideas are the only reliable form of reality.
Logic THe branch of philosophy that examines the processes of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles.
Methaphysics (ontology) The branch of philosophy that considers WHAT we know.
Moral Physics
Normative Philosophy A description of the way professionals ought to practice.
Perennialism An educational philosophy suggesting that nature - including human nature - is constant.
Philosophy The study of theories of knowledge, truth, existence, and morality.
Philosophy of Education A framework for thinking about educational issues, and a guide for professional practice.
Postmodernism An educational philosophy contending that many of the institutions in our society including schools are used by those in power to control and marginalize those who lack power.
Pragmatism A traditional philosophy that rejects the idea of absolute, unchanging truth, instead asserting that truth is "what works"
Progressivism An educational philosophy emphasizing curricula that focus on real-world problem solving and individual development.
Realism A traditional philosophy suggesting that the features of the universe exist whether or not a human being is there.
Standards Statements specifying what students should know and what skills they should have upon completing an area of study.
Theory A set of related principles that are based on observation and are used to explain additional observations.
Block Grants Federal monies provided to states and school districts with few restrictions for use
Categorical Grants Monies targeted for specific groups and designated purposes.
Charter Schools Alternative schools that are independently operated but publicly funded.
Homeschooling An educational option in which parents educate their children at home.
Local School Board A group of elected lay citizens responsible for setting policies that determine how a school district operates.
Principal The individual who has the ultimate administrative responsibility for the school's operation.
School District An administrative unit within a state, defined by geographical boundaries, and legally responsible for the public education of children within those boundaries.
Site-based decision making A school management reform movement that attempts to place increased responsibility for governance at the individual school level.
State board of education The legal governing body that exercises general control and supervision of the schools in a state.
State office of education Office responsible for implementing a state's education policy on a day-to-day basis.
State tuition tax-credit plans A variation on school voucher programs in which parents are given tax credits for money they spend on private-school tuition.
Superintendent The school district's head administrative officer, along with his or her staff, responsible for implementing that policy in the district's school.
Voucher A check or written document that parents can use to purchase educational services.
Academic Freedom The right of teachers to choose both content and teaching methods based on their professional judgment.
Affirmative Action A collection of policies and procedures designed to overcome past racial, ethnic, gender and disability discrimination.
Buckley Amendment A federal act that makes school records open and accessible to students and their parents.
Copyright Laws Federal laws designed to protect the intellectual property of authors, including printed matter, videos, computer software and various other types of original work.
Establishment Clause The clause of the First Amendment that prohibits the establishment of a national religion.
Fair use guidelines Policies that specify limitations in the use of copyrighted materials for educational purposes.
Free exercise clause The clause of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from interfering with individuals' rights to hold religious beliefs and freely practice religion.
in loco parentis A principle meaning "in place of the parents" that requires teachers to use the same judgment and care as parents in protecting the children under their supervision.
Licensure The process by which a state evaluates the credentials of prospective teachers to ensure that they have achieved satisfactory levels of teaching competence and are morally fit to work with youth.
Negligence A teacher's or other school employee's failure to exercise sufficient care in protecting students from injury.
Notoriety The extent to which a teacher's behavior becomes known and controversial.
Professional Ethics A set of moral standards for acceptable professional behavior.
Reduction in force The elimination of teaching positions because of declining student enrollment or school funds. Also known as riffing.
Teaching Contract A legal employment agreement between a teacher and a local school board.
Tenure A legal safeguard that provides job security by preventing teacher dismissal without cause.
Assistive Technology A set of adaptive tolls that support students with disabilities in learning activities and daily life tasks.
Bulletin Board An electronic message center for a given topic.
Chat Room A site on the Internet where many people can simultaneously communicate in real time.
Computer literacy Comprehending how to use a computer effectively and efficiently.
Database program A computer program that allows users to store, organize, and manipulate information including both text and numerical data.
Distance learning Organized instructional programs in which teachers and learners, though physically separated are connected through technology.
E-mail Electronic mail sent through the internet
Hypermedia A linked form of multimedia that allows learners to make connections to different points in the program based on their background knowledge and learning progress.
Icon Pictures displayed on computer screens that act as symbols for some action or item.
Instructional Technology
Internet The complex web of interconnections among computers that allows people to communicate and share information worldwide.
Problem-based learning An instructional strategy that uses a problem and the data gathered in attempts to solve it as the focal point of a lesson.
Simulations Programs, either in software or web-based form that model a system or process
Spreadsheet program Computer programs that are used to organize and manipulate numerical data.
Tutorial A software program that delivers an entire integrated instructional sequence similar to a teacher's instruction on the topic.
URL Uniform Resource Locator. A series of letters or symbols that acts as a an address for a site on the Internet.
Web sites A location on the World Wide Web identified with a uniform resource locator (URL).
Assimilation A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
Caring A teacher's investment in the protection and development of the young people in his or her class.
Culturally-responsive teaching Instruction that acknowledges and accommodates cultural diversity.
Culture The knowledge, attitudes, values, customs and behavior patterns that characterize a social group.
English as a second language (ESL) programs Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English.
Ethnicity A person's ancestry; the way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came.
Immersion Programs Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English. Little to no emphasis on previous language.
Latchkey Children Children who go home to empty houses after school and who are left alone until parents arrive home from work.
Learning Style Students' personal approaches to learning, problem solving, and processing information.
Middle Class Socioeconomic level composed of managers, administrators, and white-collar workes who perform non-manual labor.
Multicultural education Education on multiple cultures
Resilient Students Students placed at-risk who have been able to rise above adverse conditions to succeed in school and in other aspects of life.
Sexual harassment Unwanted and/or unwelcome sexual behavior that interferes with a student;s sense of well-being
Single-gender classes and schools Classes and schools where boys and girls are segregated for part or all of the day.
Socioeconomic status (SES) The combination of family income, parents' occupations and the level of parental education.
Students placed at-risk Students in danger of failing to complete their education with the skills necessary to survive in modern society.
Underclass People with low incomes who continually struggle with economic problems.
Upper class The socioeconomic class composed of highly educated (usually a college degree) highly paid (usually above $170,000) professionals who make up about 5% of the population.
Ellwood P. Cubberley -State control of education -Wanted expert professional supervision of schools far removed from parents, other private interests and political interference. -Suggested Local districts submit to state administrators. State submits to the nation.
Horace Mann Leading figure in the Common School Movement. Led the battle to create a state board of education. First Sec of state board of ed.
Robert Breckenridge Father of public education in Kentucky State Superintendent from 1847-1852 Zealous Anti-Catholic
Pluralism No pattern of schooling. Taught in a variety of settings to include: dame, public, academies, private, church, Sunday schools and libraries.
John Joseph Hughes Catholic priest. Set into motion secularization of public schools.
Catherine Beecher Challenged accepted notions of femininity and the education of women in the 19th century. Higher education should train women to be teachers.
Booker T. Washington Founder of Tuskegee Institute and leading advocate for educational and economic improvement of blacks. Stressed learning by doing the task and not by theories or abstract ideas.
John Dewey Alternative to drill and recitation. Ideas should be grounded in experience based on psychological & physical development as well as the world outside the classroom. Ideas formed the basis of progressive education.
Albert Shanker Head of the American Federation of Teachers became most widely known educational figure in the history of organized labor.
Linda Brown Thompson Known for single handedly bringing down segregation in schools in America. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.
Jose Angel Gutiérrez mobilized the community to demand equal treatment for Chicano students.
Deborah Meier Founded Central Park Elem a highly successful alt sch emphasizing active learning. She succeeded by fostering democratic community, teachers greater autonomy in the running of a school, parents a voice in schooling, and promoting a family-oriented system
E.D. Hirsch, Jr. The leading voice in the “back to basics” movement. Best known for "Cultural Literacy — What Every American Needs To Know" a list of facts, quotations and information to be essential knowledge for all Americans.
W.E.B. DuBois Believe the "talented tenth" should have the same access to a college education as the white leaders of society.
Compulsory School Attendance grounded in common law doctrine of parens patriae which means the state in its guardian role has the authority to enact reasonable laws for the welfare of its citizens and state.
Quantitative Research Collect and analyze numerical data. Four types Descriptive, Correlational, Casual Comparative, and Experimentive Research.
Qualitative Research Collect and analyze narrative data. One of the two types of research classified as qualitative research strategies. Concerned with current events rather than past events.
Basic Research Primarily concerned with the development of a theory
Applied Research Primarily concerned with the application of a theory to the solution of problems. Three types Evaluation, Research & Development, and Action Research
Evaluation Research Systematic process of gathering data to make decisions of educational relevance
Research & Development Develops effective products for use in school. ie. teacher training materials, student learning materials, school management system
Action Research Solve practical problems through the application of scientific method. Is concerned with immediate solutions to real problems
Historical Research Involved in the study of past events. One of the two types of Qualitative research.
Descriptive Research Includes collecting data to test hypothesises or answer questions regarding the subjects of the how do 2nd Grade teachers spend their time?
Correlational Research attempts to determine whether and to what degree a relationship exists between two or more numerical variables. ie. the relationship between intelligence and self esteem
Causal-comparative Research attempts to establish cause and effect relationships among the variables of the study. ie the effect of having a working mother on absenteeism
Experimental Research Like Casual-comparative in an attempt to establish cause and effect but the experimenter controls the cause (independent variable) ie the effect of positive reinforcement on attitude toward school
Created by: kylee81
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