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Patient Care

Radiation Oncology

What is myelosupression? A reduction in bone marrow function which causes pain in patients
Myelosuppression can cause what blood conditions? Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia
What is anemia? A decrease in the peripheral red blood cell count.
What is leukopenia? A decrease in the white blood cell count
What is thrombocytopenia? A reduction in the number of circulating platelets.
What is the average WBC? 5,000 – 10,000 /mm3
What is the average platelet count? 200,000 – 500,000 /mm3
What is the average RBC? Males: 5 * 106 /mm3 Females: 4.5 * 106 /mm3
Side effects associated with radiation treatment to the skin Erythema, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation
After how much dose would you expect to see erythema? 30-40 Gy
After how much dose would you expect to see moist or dry desquamation? 40-60 Gy
What can be given to patients when their skin becomes sensitive and begins to itch? Aquaphor or something similar
Side effects associated with radiation treatment to the head and neck Alopecia, dysphagia, xerostomia, mucositis, taste change, esophagitis, skin reactions (ex. erythema), and dry eye
What can be given to patients when they develop mucositis or esophagitis? Magic mouthwash which includes Maalox, Benadryl, and Lidocaine
After how much dose would you expect to see alopecia? 20 Gy
After how much dose would you expect to see mouth changes such as xerostomia, stomatitis, mucositis, or taste change? 20-30 Gy
After how much dose would you expect to see esophagitis? 20-30 Gy
Side effects associated with radiation treatment to the chest Dysphagia, esophagitis, nausea, pneumonitis, fibrosis, and fatigue
After how much dose would you expect to see nausea and vomiting? 10-20 Gy
What might be prescribed for nausea and vomiting? Zofran
Side effects associated with radiation treatment to the abdomen Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fatique, and nausea
After how much dose would you expect to see diarrhea? 20-50 Gy
What can be taken for diarrhea? Immodium
Side effects associated with radiation treatment to the pelvis Diarrhea, proctitis, dysuria, fatique, and cystitis
After how much dose would you expect to see cystitis? 30-40 Gy
What can be given for dysuria? Flomax
What can be given for cystitis? Pyridium
What is the difference between a drug and medication? A drug is any substance that alters physical function whereas a medication is administered with a therapeutic intent
Six Rights of Drug Safety Right patient Right medication Right dose Right time Right route Right documentation of delivery
Proper Response to an Allergic Reaction to Contrast Immediately stop procedure Call oncologist Stay with patient
Types of emergencies most likely encountered Asthma attack, pulmonary edema, anaphylactic shock, and cardiac arrest
Routes of Drug Administration Oral, mucous membrane (ex. sublingual), topical, and parenteral
Common Parenteral Routes Intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous
Purpose of Contrast Media Increase visibility of soft tissue and internal structures with low natural contrast
Two Basic Types of Contrast Agents Radiolucent (negative) Radiopaque (positive)
Examples of Radiolucent Contrast Agents Air and Carbon dioxide
Ionic Contrast Ions (charged particles) are created when the agent dissolves in the blood
Nonionic Contrast Do not dissolve into ions when they enter the blood
Osmolality Indicates the number of particles in a given solution of water
All Ionic Contrast Agents have ____ Osmolality High
Most Nonionic Contrast Agents have ____ Osmolality Low
Potential Reactions to Contrast Hypovolemia, kidney toxicity, and allergic reactions
What is an idiosyncratic response? Unpredictable response
What is a non-idiosyncratic response? Predictable response, what you can expect
What is extravasation? Leakage of fluid into the tissues
What is the preferred contrast agent for imaging of the GI system? Barium sulfate
What are routes of administration for barium sulfate? Oral and rectal
What is a normal blood pressure range? 120/80 mmHg or below
What are different ways to check one’s temperature? Oral, rectal, and axillary
What temperature is average when taken orally? 98.6° F
What temperature is average when taken rectally? 99.6° F
What temperature is average when taken axillary? 97.6° F
What is the normal pulse rate range for adults? 60 to 90 beats/min
What is the average rate of respiration for adults? 10 to 20 breaths/min
What is the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases and injuries in human populations? Epidemiology
What is the presence of an agent that is infectious but does not initiate an immune response? Colonization
A person who carries a specific pathogen but is free of signs or symptoms of the disease and yet is capable of spreading the disease is referred to as what? Carrier
The term used when an infection is acquired in a hospital? Nosocomial
What are five different routes of transmission? Contact Droplet Common vehicle Airborne Vectorborne
What transmission route is the cause of most nosocomial infections? Contact
How does droplet transmission occur? Involves the rapid transfer of the infectious agent through the air over short distances
What are causes of droplet transmission? Talking, coughing, sneezing, etc.
How are droplet contact and airborne transmission differentiated? By particle size and distance
Should a needle be recapped after use? Never recap a needle
Where do used needle go? They are discarded in a sharps container
Needlesticks account for what percentage of job-related acquired HIV? 84%
Can a paint pen be used on different patients? A pen used to apply marks on a patient’s skin should never be used on multiple patients.
When should gloves be worn? Gloves should be worn when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and any contaminated items.
When should hands be washed? Wash hands immediately after gloves are removed, between patients, and when otherwise indicated to prevent the spread of microorganisms
What is the single most effective weapon for reducing nosocomial infection? Hand hygiene
How should fingernails be maintained for healthcare workers? Fingernails should be natural, unpolished, short, and neat.
Why is it important to remove gloves after positioning patient but before using equipment? To avoid the spread of disease
Examples of Radiopaque Contrast Agents Barium and Iodine
Created by: Casey7756