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Chemistry I

Midterm : StudyGuide & Vocabulary

What is the difference between Accuracy and precision? Accuracy is how close to the a accepted value a measurement is. Precision is the repeated agreement of the data being gathered.
What is the formula for density? Density equals mass over volume.
What are the standard SI units for mass, length, Temperature, time and amount? Mass-kilogram length-meter temperature-kelvin time-per second amount-mole
what are The metric prefixes? kilo (1000)/ Hecto (100)/ Deca (10)/ Deci (0.1)/ Centi (0.01)/ Milli (0.001)/ Micro (0.000001
How do you explain absolute Zero?? Absolute Zero is no matter motion.
How many significant digits are in this number : 14.379 ? or 0.0478 ? 5 / 3
What is a heterogeneous mixture? A Heterogeneous Mixture is a solution that is not uniform in composition
What is a homogeneous mixture? A Homogeneous Mixture is a type of solution that is uniform in composition.
What are some characteristics of a chemical change? Rusting, decomposing (changes of composition)
What are some characteristics of a physical changes? Lab Examples? Freezing, melting, evaporation, and condensation (changes of state)
What are the three different states of matter? Solid, Liquid and Gas
What are some Intensive properties? Density, Color, and Flammability (independent variable)
What are some Extensive Properties? Volume, Melting Point, Length (dependent variable)
What is filtration used for?
What is distillation used for? Distillation is used for separating a solid from a liquid by evaporating the liquid.
What are the diatomics? Hydrogen, Oxygen, nitrogen, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, & Fluorine
What is the Atomic Number based on? the number of protons in an atom
What is Atomic Mass comprised of? it is comprised of both number of protons and number of neutrons
What is an atom with a charge called? an Ion
What is an atom that contain the same number of protons but a different amount of neutrons? An isotope
What are Spectral lines a representation of? they are representation of where wavelengths land on the visible color spectrum
What are the different electromagnetic waves in order from smallest to largest? Radio < Microwave < Infrared < Visible < ultraviolet < X rays < Gamma Rays
What does Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle state? It states that the specific path of an electron cannot be determined. However, we can use quantum mechanics to determine the probability of where the electron might be.
What does Pauli's Exclusion Principle state? It states that each orbital may only hold 2 electrons with opposite spins.
What are the four Valence orbitals? What are their specific names? S-Sphere P-Dumbell D-Clover F- Too complicated a shape for a name
What are the four Quantum Numbers? Principal Quantum Number, Azimuthal/ Angular Momentum Quantum Number (Shape), Magnetic Quantum Number (Orientation), Spin Quantum Number
Doberenier (1740) "Triads" / chemicals with similar properties
Newlands (1863) "Law of Octaves" / elements can be arranged in octaves that certain properties repeat for every eighth element
Mendeleev (1869) Periodic Table / published a periodic table using the repeating properties method and ordered them according to Atomic mass (was able to predict a few elements)
Moseley (1930) arranged atoms according to atomic number / nuclear charge, used x ray diffraction pattern
What are the four periodic trends? Atomic Size, Ionic Size, Ionization Energy, Electron affinity
Created by: jennahamilton