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Cancer Overview

Benign tumors Generally well differentiated, do not metastasize, often encapsulated, slow growing, end in –oma (W/L pg. 5)
Protooncogenes Normal genes that play a part in controlling normal growth and differentiation (W/L pg. 4)
Oncogenes Cancer genes (W/L pg. 4)
Antioncogenes Tumor suppressor genes; inactivation of antioncogenes allows malignant process to flourish (W/L pg. 4)
Sarcomas Arising from mesenchymal cells including connective tissue, cartilage, bone (W/L pg. 5)
Carcinomas Originate from epithelium- tissue that lines body cavities (W/L pg. 5)
Gompertzian growth curve Demonstrates that initially tumor growth is exponential but as the tumor enlarges and outgrows the blood and nutrient supply, the rate of cell replication more closely equals the rate of cell death (W/L pg. 5)
Core needle biopsy Using a large gauge needle of 14 or 16, tumor architecture is preserved, allowing identification of tumor tissue of origin (W/L pg. 10)
Alkylating agents Carboplatin, chlorambucil, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, melphalan, nitrogen mustard (W/L pg. 14)
Antimetabolites Cytarabine, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine (W/L pg. 14)
Antitumor Antibiotics Bleomycin, dactinomycin/Adriamycin, doxorubicin, mithramycin, mitomycin (W/L pg. 14)
Hormonal Agents Corticosteroids (dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone), antiandrogen (flutamide), antiestrogen (tamoxifen, zoladex), gonadotropin releasing hormone (leuprolide) (W/L pg. 14)
Nitrosoureas Carmustine, lomustine, streptozocin; lipid soluble- able to cross blood brain barrier (W/L pg. 15)
Plant Alkaloid Etoposide, taxol, vinblastine, vincristine (W/L pg. 15)
Immunotherapy Amplifies body’s own disease fighting system to destroy cancer through vaccines (W/L pg. 17)
Interferons Proteins capable of killing or slowing growth of cancer cells (W/L pg. 17)
Inerleukin-2 Growth factor that stimulates an increase in the number of lymphocytes (W/L pg. 17)
Created by: cb4945