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Digestive System Tumors

Most common and important etiologic factors for SCC of esophagus in Western countries Excessive alcohol and tobacco use (W/L pg. 781)
Barrett’s esophagus Distal esophagus is lined with columnar epithelium instead of stratified squamous epithelium; risk factor for adenocarcinoma of esophagus (W/L pg. 782)
Achalasia Disorder in which lower two thirds of esophagus loses its normal peristaltic activity, esophagus becomes dilated, and esophogastric junction sphincter fails to relax; risk factor for developing SCC of esophagus (W/L pg. 782)
Plummer Vinson Syndrome Iron deficient anemia characterized by esophageal webs, atrophic glossitis, and spoon-shaped, brittle fingers; risk factor for developing SCC of esophagus (W/L pg. 782)
Location of SCC in esophagus Proximal and midesophagus (Mosbys pg. 153)
Location of adenocarcinoma in esophagus Distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (Mosbys pg. 153)
Local spread pattern of esophageal cancer Trachea, mediastinum, lung, pleura, aorta, heart (Mosbys pg. 153)
Distant spread pattern of esophageal cancer Liver, lung, bone (Mosbys pg. 153)
Lymph node drainage pattern of esophageal cancer Cervical, supraclavicular, paraesophageal, celiac axis, perigastric nodes (Mosbys pg. 153)
Treatment of choice for esophageal cancer Surgery; esophageal tumors of the upper 1/3 not surgically removed since there’s no proximal end to reconnect (Mosbys pg. 154)
Most common histology of stomach cancer Adenocarcinoma (Mosbys pg. 154)
Treatment of choice for gastric cancer Surgery (Mosbys pg. 154)
Gardner’s syndrome Adenomatous polyposis of large bowel and other abnormal growths (W/L pg. 765)
Treatment for colon cancer located above sigmoid Surgery and multiagent chemotherapy (Mosbys pg. 157)
Most common location of pancreatic cancers Head of pancreas (V/D pg. 122)
Treatment of choice for localized pancreatic cancer Surgery; only 10-25% of patients are candidates for surgery (V/D pg. 124)
Treatment port for tumor in head of pancreas Superior- T11/T12; inferior- L3; lateral- 2 to 3 cm margin around tumor; exclude ¾ of left kidney (V/D pg. 126)
Most common histology of anal cancers Squamous cell carcinoma (Mosbys pg. 158)
Associations with anal cancers AIDS, HPV, homosexuality in men (Mosbys pg. 158)
Most common site of metastatic spread for rectal cancer Liver (Mosbys pg. 135)
Hematochezia Rectal bleeding (W/L pg. 768)
Tenesmus Spasm of rectum accompanied by desire to empty bowel (W/L pg. 769)
Two most common treatment procedures for rectal cancer Low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection (W/L pg. 771)
Sphincter-preserving procedure done for curative intent in patients with low to middle third rectal cancers that are confined to bowel wall Endocavitary radiation therapy (W/L pg. 771)
Direction of extension with colorectal cancer Radial extension (W/L pg. 770)
Created by: cb4945