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Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
a(with a - above it) Before
a.c Before meals
ASA Aspirin AKA AcetylSalicylic Acid
ad lib As desired
Acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-P-AminoPhenol)
Brakets means The words are being faded out in medical languange.
{A.D or AD} Right ear or Alzheimer's diease
{A.S or AS} Left ear
{A.U or AU} Both ears
B.I.D or b.i.d or bid Twice a day
c(with a - above it) with
Cap(s) capsule(s) or caplet(s)
comp. compound
CR or C-R Controlled Release
D(Zyrtec D) Decongestant
D/C Discontinue OR Discharge
DR Drug Resistant
D.S or DS Double Strength
elix. elixir
ER Extended Release
ES Extra strength
FA Folic acid
GHB Gammahydroxybutyrate AKA the "date rape drug"
h or hr hour
hour is also written as a degree sign
{h.s} hours of sleep(bedtime)
{h.s}is usually at 2200 hours(10:00pm)
HS Half strength
HTN hypertension
IB Ibuprofen
IND Investigational New Drug
INJ or inj Injection
K Potassium
KCL Potassium chloride
K or KCI is commonly measured in Milliequivalents(mEq.)
LA or L.A or L-A Long acting
Liq. Liquid
MDR Multidrug resistant or minimum Daily Requirements
MN MidNight
{MS} Morphine Sulfate or Multiple Sclerosis or Magnesium Sulfate
{MSO (little)4} Morphine sulfate
{MgSO(little)4} Magnesium sulfate
ND Nondrowsy
NIH National Institutes of Health
NKA No Known Allergies
NKDA No Known Drug Allergies
NPO or n.p.o. Nothing by mouth
NR No Refills
NS or NSS Normal Saline Solution
NS or NSS is AKA 0.9% sodium chloride(NaCL)
{O.D or OD} right eye or overdose
{O.S or OS} Left eye
{O.U or OU} Both eyes
OTC or otc over the counter
p(with a - above it) after
p.c or pc after meals
PT or pt{pt} patient
PCN penicillin
PCA Patient controlled analgesia
PRN or p.r.n. as needed(whenever necessary)
q(with a - above it) every
{Q.D. or q.d. or qd} every day
q.h. or qh every hour
q.2.h. or q2h every two hours
Q.I.D. or q.i.d. four times a day
{Q.O.D. or q.o.d.} every other day
RDA Recommended daily allowance
RFs Refills
RPh Registered Pharmacist
Rx Prescription
s(with a - above it) without
SA Sustained action
SPF Sun Protection Factor
SR Slow release or sustained release
ss(with a - above it) one half
ss sliding scale
A sliding scale(ss)refers to Insulin dosage based on Blood Sugar(BS)
Stat. Now
syp. syrup
tab or tabs tablet(s)
TDM Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
T.I.D. or t.i.d. Three times a day
TPN Total parental Nutrition AKA hyperalimetation("hyperal")
Total parental Nutrition (TPN)refers to The adminstration of all nutrients intravenously(IV)
UD Unit Dose
Ung. or oint. ointment
WHO World Health Organization
WNL Within normal limits
w/o without
XL extended length
XR extended release
> Greater then
less then
(drawing of a triangle) change
The study of drugs AND their interactions with living organisms is called Pharmacology
Any nonfood chemical substance that affects the mind or body is called a drug
A drug deliberately administered for it's medicinal value is called a medicine
The three medical usues for medications are to: 1.)prevent disease 2.)Diagnose disease 3.)treat disease
FDA stands for Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration(FDA)regulates prescription and over the counter (OTC)medications for the use in the US.
DEA stands for Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration(DEA)regulates the manufacturing AND dispensing of potentially abused drugs
Schedule drugs refers to drugs that have a potential for abuse
schedule drugs are controlled drugs
THe lower the number of the scheduled drug the greater the abuse potential
United States Pharmacopeia or National Formulary(USP/NF) a list of all prescribed AND Over the Counter(OTC)medications in the US AND all information known about each medication.
A common pharmacopeia is a Physician's Desk Reference(PDR)
The name given to a drug when it is created is called the genetic name
A generic name is usually recognized by: 1.)Being lower cased 2.)Being usually hard to pronounce 3.)Being in parentheses
THe nick-name given to a generic drug so consumers will remember it easily is called the Trade name OR brand name OR product name
The trade name is usually recognized by: 1.)Being capitalized 2.)Being easy to pronounce 3.)Having a registered mark
Trade name medications AND their generic equivalent must contain exactly the same amount of active ingredients
active igredients are desighed to provide the therapeutic(beneficial)effect
Ingredients permitted to vary from genetic trade name drugs are called inert(inactive)ingredients
inert(inactive)ingredients include: 1.)binders 2.)fillers 3.)Preservatives 4.)Antioxidants 5.)buffers
Pharmacists are permitted to substitute a generic drug for a prescribed trade name drug UNLESS the prescribing physician requests "no substitutions" or "dispense As Written(DAW).
Poisonous effects of a drug are called toxic effects
The dosage margin between the therapeutic(beneficial)effect AND toxic (poisonous)effect is called the Therapeutic index(TI)
NTI stands for Narrow therapeutic Index
A large intial (beginning)dose of a medication to quickly reach the Therapeutic Index(TI) is called a Loading dose or bolus
An inert (inactive)pharmacological agent prescribed to create a psychological AND/OR physiological effect is called a placebo AKA a "sugar pill"
All new pharmaceutical drugs are protected by a patent lasting 17 years
A drug patent means that no other company can manufacture OR market an identical drug
Most medications are detoxified by the liver
Most medications are excreted by the kidneys
Most medications can be detected in a urine sample
a tablet that has a indented line running across the top is called scored
A tablet designed to dissolve in a glass of water before being swallowed is called effervescent
Tablets covered with a special coating that prevents stomach upset are called enteric coated
And enteric coated ASA(aspirin)is called Ecotrin
The classifications of ASA(aspirin)include: 1.)non-narcotic analgesic(pain management) 2.)nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAID) 3.)antipyretic(against fever) 4.)Anticoagulant (against clotting)
Medicationa that disintergrate slowly into a liquid(liq)form that releases the drug into the mouth AND throat is called a Lozenge OR troche OR pastille
The term used to describe a liquid(liq)with a watery consistency is Aqueous
The term used to describe a thick liquid(liq)is viscous
A small bottle containing injectable medication with a rubber diaphragm at the bottle neck for needle insertion is called a vial
A small slender container with a narrow neck which houses an injectable liquid(liq)is called a ampule(Amp)
A liquid(liq)medication that contains alcohol(ETOH)is called an elixir (elix.)OR tincture.
A liquid(liq) medications that contains no alcohol(ETOH)and is a concentrated solution of sugar,water,AND flavorings is called a syrup(syp)
Fat globules dispersed throughout a water base is called an emulsion
Drug particles dispersed throughout a thickened water base is called a gel
Undissolved particles of a medication to be mixed with a liquid (water)just before use is called a suspension(susp.)
Since the particles will settle,a suspension(susp)must be shaken well before use
The route of administration is the path by which a medication is taken into the body.
The method by which a medication is dispensed is called administration
Dispense means to prepare AND distribute
Movement of a drug from the site of administration into the bloodstream is called absorption
Routes of administration include: 1.)a medication applied to the skin OR the eyes OR the ears is called topical(top).
Topical medications include: Lotions,ointments(ung.OR oint)AND creams
medication patch adminstration through the skin to the bloodstream is called transdermal
A medication administered by mouth (orally)id abbreviated PO or po or p.o.
A medication administered SL stands for sublingual(under the tongue)
A medication administered IN stands for intranasal
a medication administered through a NG{ng}refers to a nasogastric tube
A medication administered through a G tube OR J tube refers to a gastrostomy tube OR jejunostomy tube
A medication administered PR stands for per rectum
Medicationa administered rectally usually refer to suppositories(supp.)AND enemas.
medications administered vaginally(Vag.)usally refers to suppositories OR creams OR foams OR douches
Inhalation(INH)administration refers to breathing in medications
Inhalation(INH)administration includes: a.)MDI which stands for metered dose inhaler. b.)Nebulizers AKA vaporizers.
NPPV which stands for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation AKA IPPB which stands for intermittent positive pressure breathing.
Endotracheal(ET)adminstration refers to within the trachea(windpipe).
Parenteral (hypodermic)administration includes: Intradermal(ID)administration refers to an injection(INJ or inj) within the skin
Common intradermal (ID)injectiona (INJ or inj)include Mantoux AKA PPD or tine
Intramuscular(I.M. or IM)administration refers to an injection (INJ or inj) within a muscle
Intravenous (I.V. or IV) administration refers to an injection(INJ or inj) within a vein
IVP stands for intravenous push
IVPB stands for intravenous piggyback
Common intravenous piggyback (IVPB) medications include antibiotics
Intra-articular(IA)administration refers to an injection(INJ or inj)into a joint
Common intra-articular(IA)medications include steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs)
Intrathecal(IT)administration refers to an injection(INJ or inj)into the Subarachnoid (SA)space
Common intrathecal(IT)medications include anesthesia AND analgesics (pain management)
Epidural(ED) administration refers to an injection(INJ or inj)above the dura mater(outermost meninx)
Common epidural (ED)injections(INJ or inj)include anesthesia and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(SAIDS)
An epidural(ED)injecion(INJ or inj)is AKA a Caudal injection (INJ or inj)or saddle block
The drug's main action for which it was prescribed by the physician is called the Therapeutic(beneficial)effect
Drug actions that are undesirable but NOT unexpected are called side effects
Severe side effects are called adverse effects
An exaggerated allergic reaction to a medication is called anaphylaxis
An undesirable interaction of drugs is called incompatibility
A unique reaction to a medication is called an idiosyncrasy
A drug that deactivates another drug is called an antagonist
The combining of medications to produce an exaggerated effect is called synergism
An example of a therapeutic (beneficial)synergistic effect is Tylenol#3 which contains acetaminophen(APAP)and codeine together they provide an increased analgesic(pain management)effect
An example of an undesirable synergistic effect is the combination of antihistamines AND alcohol(ETOH)which can cause unusual drowsiness
The synergistic effect of combining tranquillzers AND alcohol(ETOH)can cause death
mL stands for Milliliter
A milliliter(mL)is equal to a cubic centimeter{cc}
L OR l stands for liter
1 liter(L)= 1000 millilters(mL){cc}
mg stands for milligram
g{gm GM}stands for gram
1 gram(g)= 1000 milligrams(mg)
mcg{ug}stands for microgram
1 gram(g)= 1,000,000 micrograms(mcg)
kg{Kg}stands for kilogram
1 kilogram(kg)= 1000 grams(g)
M stands for meter
cm stands for centimeter
1000 milligrams (mg)= 1 gram(g)
1000 milliliters(mL)= 1 liter(L)
1000 millimeters(mm)= 1 meter (M)
1 gram(g)= 1000 milligrams(mg)
1 liter(L)= 1000 milliliters(mL)
1 meter(M)= 1000 millimeters(mm)
i (with a line across it)stands for one
ii (with a line across it)stands for two
iii (with a line across it)stands for three
iv(with a line across the i)stands for four
v(with a line in front and in back) stands for five
x(with a line in front and in back)stands for ten (without the lines, it stands for times
oz.stands for ounce
Tsp. OR tsp. stands for teaspoon
Tbsp. stands for tablespoon
gr.stands for grain
Ib or # stands for pound
pound(Ib.)i(with a line across it)= 16 ounces(oz.)
Gal stands for gallon
gallon(Gal)i(with a line across it)= 128 oz.
gt. stands for a drop
gtt. stands for drops
1 kilogram(kg)= 2.2 pounds(Ib)
ounce(oz.)i(with a line across it)= 30 milliliters(mL){cc}
teaspoon (Tsp or tsp)i(with a line across it)= 15 milliliters (mL){cc}
tablespoon (Tbsp)i(with a line across it)= 15 milliliters(mL){cc}
grain(gr.)i(with a line across it)= 60 milligrams(mg)
2.54 centimeters(cm)= 1 inch(in)
Physical or psychological dependence on a drug with a increase of dosage for desired effect(tolerance)AND withdrawal symptoms when deprived of the drug is called addiction
medications used to treat malignancies are called antineoplastics AKA chemotherapy("chemo")
Medications used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms are called antiseptics
inhibiting the growth of bacteria(preservative)is called bacteriostasis
The inside diameter of a needle is called the bore OR gauge
As the number (#)of the gauge(bore)increases,the size of the needle bore decreases
A small intravenous(IV)needle with plastic wings is called a butterfly needle
Reason(s)why a medication should NOT be administered is called a contraindication(s)
Agents used to kill microorganisms are called disinfectants
Insulin is measured in units{U}
Other medications measured in units{U}include: 1.)heparin 2.)vitamins 3.)Injectable penicillin(PCN)
Periodic doses of a drug to maintain a therapeutic(beneficial)level are called maintenance doses
Medications used to constrict the pupils(miosis)are called miotics
Medications used to dilate the pupils (mydriasis)are called mydriatica
A blood test to indicate the highest serum level of a drug is called the peal level
A blood test to indicate the lowest serum level of a drug is called the trough level
Medications used to prevent an occurrence are called prophylactics
Prophylactic medications include: 1.)Birth Control Pills(BCPs)AKA oral contraceptive pills(OCPs) 2.)Antibiotics 3.)Vaccines
Vaccines are AKA Inoculations or Immunizations
A standardized written plan of treatment is called a Protocol
Determining the smallest dosage that will produce a therapeutic(beneficial)effect is called titration(titrate)
Medications used to increase the diameter of the blood vessels are called Vasodilators
Vasodilators are used to treat Angina Pectoris(AP) and Hypertension(HTN)
Medications used to decrease the diameter of the blood vessels are called vasopressors(vasoconstrictors)
Vasopressors are used to treat extreme hypotension(low blood pressure)
Each day has _____hours 24
In military time,each hour in the day has a different number
0100= 1:00am
0200= 2:00am
0300= 3:00am
0400= 4:00am
0500= 5:00am
0600= 6:00am
0700= 7:00am
0800= 8:00am
0900= 9:00am
1000= 10:00am
1100= 11:00am
1200= noon
1300= 1:00pm
1400= 2:00pm
1500= 3:00pm
1600= 4:00pm
1700= 5:00pm
1800= 6:00pm
1900= 7:00pm
2000= 8:00pm
2100= 9:00pm
2200= 10:00pm
2300= 11:00pm
2400= midnight
0001= 1 minute after midnight
0059= 1 minute before 0100
1330 plus 30 minutes= 1400
2055 plus 5 minutes= 2100
Created by: BLM1095