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Psych Unit 7 review

learning

QuestionAnswer
Permanent change in behavior. Happens because of experience Learning
Type of learning. Involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses. Environment is involved in your learning Conditioning
Behind the idea of Classical Conditioning? Ivan Pavlov
Learn to associate 2 stimuli (make a connection). A response that's originally produced by the other. Classical Conditioning
Example: learning to walk far from the swings to avoid collisions. Classical Conditioning
The stimulus that naturally evokes the unconditioned response. Food naturally evoked salivation. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Automatically produced response. naturally occurs. Ex: salivation Unconditioned Response (UR)
Example: blinking when puff of air at the eye. Unconditioned Response (UR)
Originally neutral stimulus that creates a behavior after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Ex: tone Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Example: bell causes blinking Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Response created by the Conditioned Stimulus. Ex: tone causes salivation. Conditioned Response (CR)
Example: salivate to bell Conditioned Response (CR)
CR and UR are usually ____________? the same
When does conditioning work the best? if the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) appears before the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and both stimuli end at the same time.
When do subjects acquire a conditioned response? When a Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is paired with an Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Repeating the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) without the Unconditioned Stimulus (US)? Extinction
Over time the Conditioned Response (CR) disappears? Extinction
Weakening of a Conditioned Response (CR) Extinction
Example: over time, dog loses the defense reflex of the metronome when it doesn't get shocks. Extinction
after response has been extinguished, may reappear after a period of time with exposure to the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) again. Spontaneous Recovery
Example: bell doesn't work, then it does === dog salivates Spontaneous Recovery
Process by which a neutral stimulus comes to act as a Conditioned Stimulus (CS) by being paired with another stimulus that already creates a Conditioned Response (CR) Higher-Order Conditioning
More likely to show extinction. Higher-Order Conditioning
This creates a weaker Conditioned Response (CR) Higher-Order Conditioning
Example: food with bell bell with light (goes 1 step further) Higher-Order Conditioning
The tendency to respond to a new stimulus as if it were the original Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Stimulus Generalization
Happens most when the new stimulus resembles the original Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Stimulus Generalization
Example: Little Albert experiment Stimulus Generalization
Example: sudden noise in the middle of the night associated with the alarm clock Stimulus Generalization
The tendency to lack a Conditioned Response (CR) to a new stimulus that resembles the original Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Stimulus Discrimination
One learns to realize the difference between similar stimuli. Stimulus Discrimination
Behavior is dependent on its consequences. Often new responses. Responses are controlled by their consequences. Operant Conditioning
Another name for Operant Conditioning Instrumental Learning
Proposed the law of effect. Studied cats (needed to unlock latches to get out of crate) Thorndike
States that any behavior that has good consequences will tend to be repeated, and any behavior that has bad consequences will tend to be avoided. A satisfying result strengthens and increases a behavior. Law of Effect
Thinks that ALL behavior is explained by looking outside the individual. People + animals tend to repeat behaviors which have + consequences and decrease behaviors that have - consequences. Studied Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner
Neutral, Reinforcement, Punishment 3 types of consequences
NOT more or less likely to see behavior patterns change. NO EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR. Neutral Consequence
Anything that will make a response more likely to occur. Reinforcement
Examples: "good job", award, praise Reinforcement
Anything that will make a response LESS likely to occur Punishment
Naturally satisfying. Ex: food, water, sex. Primary Reinforcers
Satisfying from an association with primary reinforcers. Ex: money, praise, grades. Secondary Reinforcers
Inherently unpleasant. Decreases the likelihood of a response occurring again. If something bad happens you are less likely to act that way again. Punishment
A stimulus is implemented after a response so that the response happens less often. Something unpleasant happens. Ex: spanked, soap in mouth) Positive Punishment
Removal of a stimulus after a response so that the response will happen less often. Something unpleasant is removed Ex: no TV, no dessert Negative Punishment
Naturally unpleasant. Ex: pain, freezing temperatures. Primary Punisher
Unpleasant because they become associated with primary punishers. Ex: failing grades, social disapproval. Secondary Punisher
__________ helps to increase a behavior, while _____________ helps to decrease a behavior. Reinforcement, Punishment
A stimulus is implemented AFTER a response so that the response will happen more. Positive Reinforcement
Removal of a stimulus after a response so that the response will happen more. Negative Reinforcement
Acquiring a response that DECREASES an aversive stimulation (ending it early) Escape Learning
Acquiring a response that PREVENTS some aversive stimuli from happening. Avoidance Learning
When it happens right after a behavior it has the strongest effect. Reinforcement/Punishment
Reward/punishment happens each time the behavior happens. Continuous
Example: every tim kid is bad ---- TV is taken away Continuous
Yields a higher response rate. Ratio Schedules
Reinforcement after a certain of responses
Reinforcement after a fixed of response Ex: every 4 times
Example: every 4 times you do something, you ill get rewarded 1 time. Fixed Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement after some average of responses. Ex: on avg. 7
Example: person trying to win a game by getting heads on a coin toss gets heads every 2 times (avg.) that she tosses the coin. Sometimes she may toss it 1 time and get heads, but other times she may have to toss it many times before getting a heads. Variable-Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement happens after a particular avg. amount of time and once desired behavior has happened. Variable-Ratio Schedule
This type of schedule yields more resistance to extinction. Variable-Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement happens after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcer. A set schedule. Ex: every 5 minutes Fixed-Interval Schedule
Reinforcement happens if a variable amount of times has passed since last reinforcer. Ex: on avg. 5 minutes (could be 3 or 7 minutes -- varies) Variable-Interval Schedule
For a response to persist it should be reinforced __________, making responses harder to extinguish. Intermittently
Procedure in which reinforcement is used to guide a response closer and closer to a desired response. Uses successive approximation (reinforce responses that are increasingly similar to desired response) Shaping
Shape behavior to way you want your child to behave. Shaping
Example: teaching a pigeon to turin in a circle or play ping-pong. Shaping
Used to reach more complex sequence of behaviors, reinforcing various simple behaviors separately, then linking them. Chaining
Shape final response in sequence and work back until sequence is learned. Chaining
Reinforce separate behaviors being done in a specific sequence. Chaining
Example: 1) eat dinner 2) take shower 3) brush teeth [do 1,2,3 and you can watch tv) Chaining
Learning without realizing that you are learning. Learn everyday whether we realize it or not. Latent Learning
Believe there's a higher level cognitive process to how we learn which impacts attitudes, beliefs, and expectations. Observational Learning
Kids usually behave like their parents. Adults = Models Observational Learning
Had some kids watch a video of a woman beating a bobo doll. Those who saw the video were much more aggressive than those who didn't. Kids also used guns and other violent weapons that were placed in the room. Albert Bandura and Bobo doll study
RESULTS: did what adult models did; observed their behavior and modeled it. Albert Bandura and Bobo doll study
Prosocial behavior. Can be learned through modeling. Observational Learning
15 male/15 female 1st graders watch 30 minutes of tv show under 3 different conditions assigned randomly. IV: tv show watched 1) someone saved Lassie 2) neutral (no humans helping dogs) 3) Brady Bunch (+ family interactions, no dog scen Lassie Study
Double blind experiment. Kids taken to game room and given prizes by of points earned. Kids wear headphones to press "help" button if puppies bark (couldn't keep playing if they asked for help). Kids heard same tape (30 sec. silence & 120 sec. barkin
DV: amount time each kid pressed "help" button during the barking, and the speed they intervened one barking started. RESULTS: during 120 sec. barking period, kids in Lassie Rescue group-77% helping, neutral group-53%, Brady Bunch-34%. Lassie Study
Prosocial Lassie group were quickest to respond [imitated what they had seen in their tv show] Lassie Study
1) attention 2) retention 3) reproduction 4) motivation Bandura's 4 key components to Observational Learning
pay attention to what you see. Attention
store what you observe. Retention
Created by: 544