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Chapter2

Management Chapter2

QuestionAnswer
Adam Smith 1776 Published a classical economics doctrine -he outlined the economics advantages to organizations and society from the division of labor, the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks and job specification, specific task performed by specific memb
Industrial Revolution Human was replace by machines.
Scientific Management -by FREDERICK W. TAYLOR -by FRANK and Lilian Gilbreth
Four Principle of Management (scientific) - develop a science for each element of an individual's work, which will replace the old thumb method. -Scientifically select and then train,teach and develop worker. -cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with t
Frank and lilian Gilbreth -eliminate wasteful hand to body motion. -the use of proper tool to for optimizing work performances.
General Administrative Theorists develop more general theories for the entire organization on what managers do and what constituted good management practice. -by HENRY FAYOL and MAX WEBER
14 Principles of Management (Fayol) -Division of work -authority -discipline -unity of command -unity of direction -subordination of individual interest to org -remuneration -centralization -scalar chain -order -equity -stability of tenure of personnel -initiative -spirit d
Weber's ideal bureaucracy -a theory of authority structure and relations -a form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clear defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations and impersonal relationship.
Bureaucracy Career Orientation Manager are career professional, not owners of unit they manage.
Bureaucracy Impersonality Uniform application of rules and controls, not according to personalities.
Bureaucracy Formal Rules and Regulations System of written rules and standard operating procedures.
Bureaucracy Formal Selection People selected for jobs based on technical qualification.
Bureaucracy Authority Hierarchy Positions organized in a hierarchy with a clear chain of command
Bureaucracy Division of labor Job broken down into simple, routineand well-defined tasks.
The contribution of General Administrative theorists - the functional view of the manager's job - the 14 principles do serve as a frame of reference from which many current management concepts of POMLC have evolved. -necessary to ensure the resources are E & E
Quantitative Approach to management (Operation Research or management science) -involve quantitative technique to improve decision making -Application of statistic, optimization models, information models and computers simulation to management activities. -Work scheduling is more efficient with CRITICAL path scheduling analysis.
Contribution of Quantitative approach -budgeting, scheduling , quality control and other similar decision. rely on the quantitative technique -Availability of sophisticated computer software program aid in the developing models. -Equation and formulas has been made use of quantitative appro
ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR(OB) -focus of the organization human resources -concerned with the behavior of the people at work. -RESULT *many contemporary views on the human resource, motivation, leadership, teamwork and conflict management
Early Advocate of OB(Robert,Hugo) -believe that people is the most important asset of the organization -Should manage accordingly - CONTRIBUTION *HAWTHORNE Study
HAWTHORNE STUDY(Western Electric Company) -initially designed as a scientific management experiment to examine effect of various illumination level on worker productivity. -Social norm or group standards are the key determinants of individual work behavior. lead to new emphasis on the human beh
EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION(Dale Carnegie, Abrahim Maslow, Douglas McGregor) believe a satisfied worker is a productive worker.
Dale Carnegie says... -Make others feel important through sincere appreciation of their efforts -making good first impression -Winning people to your way of thinking by letting others do the talking, being sympathetic -changing people by praising their good traits and givi
Abrahim Maslow says... -proposed a theoretical hierarchy of need PSLES / PSSES -self-actualization is the summit of human existence, achieving one's full potential. -user tend to change their organization in the way the worker being able to self actualize.
Douglars McGregor says... -THEORY X AND THEORY Y
THEORY X -presents an essentially negative view of people. -little ambition, dislike work,want to avoid responsibility and need to closely directed.
Theory Y -positive view -Assume that people can exercise self direction, accept responsibility and consider work to be natural. -best captured the true nature of workers and should guide management practice.
HUMAN BEHAVIOR (FRED FIEDLER,VICTOR VROOM,FREDERICK HERZHERG) contribution *to current understanding of leadership, employee motivation and the design of jobs
CONTRIBUTION OF OB the way manager design motivating jobs the way managers work with employee teams the way manager use open communication
System Approach (1960) -analyze organization from a system perspective -a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. -CLOSED and OPEN -an org is being envisioned as being made up of 'interdependent factors' including indi
CLOSED SYSTEM are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment.
Open System dynamically interact with their environment. an org takes in input from envio and transform or process these resources into output and distributed into the envio -the org is open to its environment and interacts with the environment.
THE CONTINGENCY APPROACH -Also sometimes called the situational approach. -There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations. -Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables),
Contingency view of management case view [ every situation is unique] + universalist view [ there is one best way] = organizational phenomena exist in logical pattern =managers devise and apply similar responses to coming type of problems
Popular Contingency Variables -Organization size -Routineness of task technology -Environmental uncertainty -Individual differences
Current Trends and Issues Globalization Ethics Workforce Diversity Entrepreneurship E-business Knowledge Management Learning Organizations Quality Management
Globalization -Management in international organizations -Political and cultural challenges of operating in a global market
Ethics -Increased emphasis on ethics education in college curriculums -Increased creation and use of codes of ethics by businesses
Workforce Diversity 1)Increasing heterogeneity in the workforce *More gender, minority, ethnic, and other forms of diversity in employees 2)Aging workforce *Older employees who work longer and do not retire The increased costs of public and private benefits for older wor
Entrepreneurship Defined The process whereby an individual or group of individuals use organized efforts to create value and grow by fulfilling wants and needs through innovation and uniqueness.
Entrepreneurship process -Pursuit of opportunities -Innovation in products, services, or business methods -Desire for continual growth of the organization
E-Business (Electronic Business) -The work preformed by an organization using electronic linkages to its key constituencies -E-commerce: the sales and marketing component of an e-business
Knowledge Management The cultivation of a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather and share knowledge with others in order to achieve better performance.
Learning Organization An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change.
Created by: Strango
 

 



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