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Radiology Final

Radiology Exam 3

enamel and dentin is.. (radiolucent/radiopaque?) radiopaque
pulp space and root canal is... (radiolucent/radiopaque?) radiolucent
radiolucent is... dark
radiopaque is... white/bright
enamel is how much % mineral 90%
dentin is how much % mineral 70%
periodontal ligament surrounds root structure
Cementum is how much % mineral? 50% won't be able to see on the X-rays
lamina dura radiopaque line that surrounds the root structure
alveolar crest cortical borders of the alveolar bone between teeth most commonly seen on bitewings
Periodontal ligament space radiolucent line surrounding the tooth structure
cancellous or trabecular bone maxilla is smaller than mandibular bony structure that looks like plates
cortical plates outside of buccal or lingual, inside is cancellous bone radiopaque thickness of the structure
intermaxillary suture or median suture curving radiolucency in the midline of the maxillary between the two centrals, separation between r/l maxilla
anterior nasal spine radiopaque diamond shaped, superior to maxillary fossa
nasal cavity, nasal fossa two elliptical radiolucencies superior to anterior teeth NOT MAXILLARY SINUS
Nasal Septum radiopaque band that separates the right nasal fossa and left nasal fossa
Incisive Foramen Nasopalatine foramen anterior palatine foramen radiolucent heart shaped between the two centrals
lateral fossa incisive fossa bony depression on facial side of maxilla
soft tissue of nose shadow of the nose radiopaque
Naris opening of the nasal fossa, two elliptical areas
maxillary sinus location premolar and molar area, posterior region radiolucent area
wall of maxillary sinus radiopaque line of nasal sinus
maxillary tuberosity most distal to last erupted surfaces radiopaque area
zygomatic process U shaped radiopaque area in maxilla
genial tubercles Bony structure on the lingual side on mandible mandibular anterior projection radiopaque circle
lingual foramen radiolucent structure inide the genial tubercle dot mandibular anterior projection
mental ridge radiopaque band chin projected on anterior mandibular region
mental fossa less radiopaque, bony depression on facial side
mental foramen between first premolar and send premolar apex radiolucent below the first molar will be able to see on a panoramic
mandibular foramen can't see on periapical
walls of inferior alveolar canal (radiopaque/radiolucent) radiopaque
mandibular canal (radiopaque/radiolucent) radiolucent
nutrient canal thin vertical radiolucent line between teeth
submandibular fossa below the molar area on mandibular radiolucent
mylohyoid ridge internal oblique ridge location lingual side, superimposed over submandibular gland
external oblique ridge location facial side disappears around the first molar area, downward slope, continuation of ramus
coronoid process mandibular structure projected on maxillary molar projection triangle radiopaque area
what is the most important radiograph to take for detect caries? bitewings
where are the most common location for inter proximal caries? between two adjacent surfaces
incipient interproximal caries less than halfway through enamel
moderate interproximal caries more than halfway through enamel
advanced inter proximal caries less than halfway through dentin
severe interproximal caries more than halfway through dentin
occlusal caries definition involves the chewing surface of the posterior teeth
what does a moderate occlusal caries look like? very thin radiolucent line
what does a severe occlusal caries look like large cavity
root surface caries definition below the CEJ, recession or bone loss
what % deminieralized change is required for a lesion to be radiographically detectable? 30-40%
what causes overlapping with bitewings horizonal beam angulation
radiographs will show ____ bone destruction than actually exists less
what are the most accurate images to assess alveolar bone loss adjacent to posterior teeth? bitewings
what are the most accurate images for anterior teeth in alveolar bone loss? periapicals and bitewings
when are vertical bitewings done? advanced alveolar bone loss
what does gingivitis look like on radiographs? typically no or minimal radiographic changes soft tissue infection so doesn't effect the bone
what does a mild periodontitis look like on radiographs? shape of alveolus is no longer tall, skinny and pointed bone level begins to drop
what does moderate periodontitis look like on radiographs? fret of the alveolus is blunted a little bit, bone level moves apically progresses down the root of the tooth, widening of PDL
what is horizontal bone loss? earliest type of bone loss, line is straight
what is vertical bone loss? angular defect, local irritating factor that causes the bone to have more advanced bone loss, more progressive disease
3 wall bony pocket can see trabecular pattern from the buccal and lingual walls
1 wall bony pocket buccal and lingual are gone, no trabecular pattern just darkness
what does severe periodontitis look like on radiographs? furcations are exposed crest of alveolar bone is ragged and jagged
what is hyperdontia? too many teeth
what is mesiodens? extra teeth between 8 and 9
what is paramolar extra teeth adjacent to the molar
what is distodens? extra teeth behind the molar
what are the syndromes associated with supernumerary teeth? cleidocranial dysplasia Gardner syndrome
what is hypodontia not enough teeth, missing teeth
what is oligodontia? some of the teeth missing
what is anodontia no teeth present at all
what are the most common missing teeth? 3rd molars, 2nd premolars --> congenitally missing maxillary laterals, mandibular centrals
what is ectodermal dysplasia? remaining teeth are misshaped
what do we consider a cyst? greater than 3 mm
what is a macrodontia? large tooth
what is a microdontia? small tooth
what causes generalized macrodontia or microdontia? pituitary giantism or dwarfism
what is transposition? teeth that get out of order
what is the most common tooth to see transposition on? permanent canine and 1st premolar
what is the least common tooth to see transposition on? centrals and laterals no reports of deciduous dentition
what is syndontia? fusion, teeth germs combine two recognizable teeth that are joined by dentin and enamel end up with one tooth less when you count
what it concrescence roots of two or more teeth united by only cementum
what is gemination or twinning? bud of a single tooth attempts to divide partial division or complete division when you count, have the regular number of teeth
what is taurodontism pump chamber is dramatically enlarged vertically single or multiple teeth can be involved no treatment, just alter endodontics
what is dilaceration? sharp bend or curve in root possibly result of mechanical trauma to partially formed root
where is dilaceration most common in? maxillary premolars
what is dens in dente or dens invaginatus? tooth folds in on itself significant depression on lingual surface
where is dens in dente most common in? maxillary laterals
where is dens in dente least common? maxillary centrals, canines, premolars
what is dens evaginatus? pulp horns extends into evagination tooth with extra cusp and pulp horn inside exlusive occurrence in down syndrome
where is dens evaginatus most commonly found in teeth? premolar or molar
what is amelogenesis imperfecta? defect in enamel of teeth teeth is discolored yellow
what is dentiogenesis imperfecta? defect in dentin of teeth squeezes appearance of teeth
what is type I dentiogenesis imperfecta? associated with osteogenesis imperfects, systemic disease dentin and bone haver imperfection
what is type II dentiogenesis imperfecta? not associated with skeletal defects
what is dentin dysplasia? teeth discolored yellowish to brown
what is dentin dysplasia type I? radicular root portion, looks like rootless teeth because of resorption of roots roots are small, no pulp space
what is dentin dysplasia type II? coronal, flame shaped pulp chambers become thistle shaped
what is regional odotondysplasia ghost teeth, cronal portion of the tooth and root look shadowy and are not mineralized correctly, have to remove them
where does regional odotondysplasia happen most? maxillary centrals, laterals, canines
what are enamel pearls? enamel drops, nodules or enamelomas down along gingiva
where are enamel pearls found most? maxillary or mandibular molars
what is a talon cusp? enlargement or hyperplasia of cingulum makes a T shape when viewed from incisal aspect
where do the talon cusps typically occur? primary and permanent incisors
what is turner hypoplasia? turner tooth, deciduous tooth becomes infected and permanent tooth effected while erupting enamel is modeled and irregular
where is turner's teeth most common? mandibular premolars
what does congenital syphilis look like in the mouth? hitchinson's incisors- notches in in sisal edge mulberry molars- extra cusps in molars
what is attrition? physiologic wearing away of the dentition from occlusal contracts between teeth during chewing teeth look flat from wear
what is abrasion? non physiologic wearing away of the dentition by contact with foreign substances toothbrushes, dental floss abrasion
what is erosion? wearing away of the dentition by chemical action not involving bacteria
what is perimylolysis? erosion of the tooth structure on the lingual side of the teeth
what is secondary dentin? probable result of trauma or aging
what is tertiary dentin? aging only
what is hypercementiosis? excessive deposition of cementum on roots
what disease is associated with hypercementosis? pagents disease
how should you interpret a radiograph? Examine periapicals before bitewings examine the bone first, second examine the alveolar process, third view the teeth and associated structures
how should radiographs be viewed? ambient or subdued light viewing, mounted radiographs, view box accommodate size of film, comfortable seated position, variable intensity view box or light
step 1 principles of interpretation localize the abnormality generalized or localized
step 2 principles of interpretation assess periphery and shape well defined or ill defined
step 3 principles of interpretation analyze the internal structure radiopaque or radiolucent
step 4 principles of interpretation analyze the effects of the lesion on the surrounding tissues
step 5 principles of interpretation formulate a radiograph interpretation
step 5 decision 1 normal vs abnormal
step 5 decision 2 developmental vs acquired
step 5 decision 3 classification
step 5 decision 4 way to proceed
what is odontoma compound? looks like a tooth two "o"s in compound, if a tooth is found it must be compound
what is odontoma complex? nondescript mass
what is osteosclerosis no apparent reason for bone formation
what is condensing osteitis? pulpal/periodontal inflammation leads to increased bone deposition
what does pericoronitis look like? flame shaped inflammation around the crown of the erupted tooth radiolucent
what is a cyst? fluid filled cavity epithelium lined, radiolucent
what does the traumatic bone cyst look like? scallops between the roots of the teeth
what is the ill defined cyst like lesions? osteomyelitis
what does the nasopalatine duct cyst look like? heart shaped
where is the submandibular gland depression found? well defined area below mandibular canal
what do multilocular lesions look like? soap bubbles
what does benign mean? slow growth, tend to be round or oval shape, displace tissues, resorbs root surfaces
what does malignant mean? rapid growth, ill defined border, destroy supporting bone, may resorb root surface
direct effect has what percent on atoms 1/3 of biological effect
indirect effect has what percent on atoms? 2/3 of biological effect
when direct energy is deposited what two effects can take place? excitation or ionization
how much water does the body contain? 80% water
what is the indirect radiation based upon radiolysis of water
when does mucositis being? 2 weeks of treatment
what happens during prodromal period? gi disturbances
Created by: Chobchi