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Viruses

important human viruses and their properties

VirusClinical ImportanceGroup
Variola smallpox virus, produces systemic infection with characteristic vesicular rash affeacting face, arms and legs, has a high mortality rate DNA Viruses poxviruses
Vaccinia derived from cowpox virus, immunize against smallpox DNA Viruses poxviruses
Adenovirus cause URT infections, produce latent infections in tonsil and adenoids, produce tumors on inj into hamsters, rats or mice DNA Viruses adenoviruses
Herpes simplex virus (HSV1 and HSV2) HSV1 infects oral membranes HSV2 is responsible for recurrent genital herpes DNA Viruses herpesviruses
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in children, shingles in elderly DNA Viruses herpesviruses
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) a subclinical infection, causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients, can induce serious congenital abnormalities in the fetus DNA Viruses herpesviruses
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection by salivary exchange, asmyptomatic, persists in latent form in lymphocytes, results glandular fever, malignant facial tumors (Burkitt's lymphoma) in children DNA Viruses herpesviruses
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children by prenatal transmission, contaminated blood or sexual transmission, can progress liver cancer DNA Viruses hepatitis viruses
Papilloma virus multiply in epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes causing warts, associated with cervical carcinoma DNA Viruses papovaviruses
Mumps virus swelling of parotid and submaxillary salivary glands, has neurological complications RNA Viruses paramyxoviruses
Measles virus common childhood fever RNA Viruses paramyxoviruses
Rabies virus has very wide host range, can cause fatal encephalitis RNA Viruses rhabdoviruses
Rotavirus causes gastroenteritis, spread through poor water supplies and low general hygiene RNA Viruses reoviruses
Poliovirus multiplies in lymphoid tissue of alimentary tract RNA Viruses picornaviruses
Rhinoviruses common cold virus, shed in watery nasal secretions RNA Viruses picornaviruses
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) responsible for infectious hepatitis, spread by oral-faecal route RNA Viruses picornaviruses
Rubella causes german measles in children, can induce severe multiple congenital abnormalities RNA Viruses togaviruses
Yellow fever virus spread by mosquito bites, with liver as main target, necrosis of hepatocytes leads to jaundice and fever RNA Viruses flaviviruses
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) spread through blood transfusions and blood products RNA Viruses flaviviruses
Ebola virus widespread in monkeys, spread through body fluids, results in hemorrhagic fever RNA Viruses filoviruses
Human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV-1) spread in infected lymphocytes in blood, semen or breast milk RNA Viruses retroviruses
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmitted via blood or genital secretions, induces immunodeficiency RNA Viruses retroviruses
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) exacerbates pathogenic effects of HBV producing severe hepatitis RNA Viruses hepatitis viruses
Influenza virus capable of extensive antigenic variation, causes pandemics of influenza, multiplies in cells lining URT, symptoms caused by absorption of toxic breakdown products RNA Viruses myxoviruses
Created by: purple_amethyst