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PathoPharm Terms

Definitions/Terms for WGU course CVG1

ABCESS a localized pocket of infection or purulent exudate surrounded by inflammation
ACETAMINOPHEN an analgesic for mild pain and antipyretic Does not lessen inflammatory response
ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID Drug taken in small doses on a continuing basis to reduce platelet adhesion
ACUTE RENAL FAILURE May be caused by bilateral acute glomerulonephritis
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE EARLY SIGNS behavioral changes and inability to reason
AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS EARLY SIGNS weakness and muscle atrophy in upper limbs
ANAPHYLAXIS life-threatening systemic allergic/Type I hypersensitivity reaction due to bronchoconstriction and systemic vasodilation developing rapidly
ANGINA PECTORIS Transient chest pain resulting from myocardial hypoxia when demands on the heart increase or oxygen supply to the heart is impaired
ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS progressive inflammatory condition involving the spine which leads to fibrosis and ankylosis
ANTICHOLINESTERASE AGENTS may be prescribed as a temporary relief of Myasthenia Gravis
ANTICOAGULENTS “Blood thinners” used to reduce the risk of blood clot formation in coronary or systemic arteries Heparin, coumadin, streptokinase
ANTIHYPERTENSIVES Classes of drugs used only in the treatment of hypertension
ANTIVIRALS Reduce viral replication
AORTIC STENOSIS Narrowing of aortic valve limits blood leaving the ventricle often diagnosed by heart murmur
ASPIRATED MATERIALS early sign is rapid loss of consciousness
ATHEROMAS Development promoted by LDL
ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES Increasing intraventricular pressure causes these valves to close
ATROPHY Degeneration & wasting of tissue, organs, or muscle due to decrease in cell size resulting in a reduced tissue mass
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE the failure of the immune system to distinguish self from non-self; Type III Hypersensitivity
BACTERIAL ENDOSPORE Can survive high temperatures and dry environment
BASILAR FRACTURE Occurs at the base of the skull
B-CELL LYMPHOMA Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
BIOSYNTHETIC SKIN SUBSTITUTE - "artificial skin" graft material when skin is damaged
ERROR IN BLOOD TYPING doing this before transfusing leads to erythrocyte hemolysis; Type II hypersensitivity
BRONCHOGENIC CARCINOMA early sign chronic cough
CANCER malignant neoplasm
CARDIAC ARREST The cessation of all cardiac function
CARDIAC ARRHYMIAS Abnormalities in the conduction system of the heart cause irregular rhythms and decreased cardiac output
CARRIER a person hosting an infectious pathogen, who shows no signs of the disease, but could transit the infection to others (Also may pass on genetic abnormalities while being asymptomatic – i.e. Sickle Cell Trait)
CAUSES the known cause of and factors predisposing to specific diseases
CELL functional and structural unit in the human body
PREDISPOSING FACTORS CVAs •Hypertension; •Diabetes mellitus; •Any form of tobacco use; •History of coronary artery disease; Hemorrhagic CVA has poorest prognosis for recovery.
CHLAMYDIA a common sexually transmitted disease that may cause PID in women
CHOLELITHIASIS gallstones usually in the gallbladder
CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS obstruction by gallstones of the biliary tract
COMMINUTED FRACTURE multiple fracture lines and bone fragments
COMPRESSION FRACTURE common in the vertebrae, occurring when a bone is crushed or collapses into small pieces
COUMADIN anticoagulant - used to prevent clot formation and extension along with heparin and streptokinase.
CULTURE & SENSITIVITY TESTS identify the type of bacteria and to determine which antibiotics can successfully fight an infection
CYSTIC FIBROSIS Genetic dis. affecting the exocrine glands ->thick mucus obstructing bronchioles, pancreatic and biliary ducts. Children born with cystic fibrosis will have delayed growth and development due to mucus plugs obstructing the flow of pancreatic enzymes.
DETACHED RETINA No pain, but increasing dark area in the visual field
DIABETES MELLITUS rel. deficit of insulin -> hyperglycemia & multiple metabolic abnormalities; can occur when pancreas does not secrete enough insulin or body cells are resistant to insulin's effects –blood glucose level becomes high after the ingestion of carbohydrates
DIGOXIN improves cardiac efficiency by slowing the heart rate and increasing the force of cardiac contraction
DYSPLASIA cells vary in size and shape and show increased mitotic figures
EDEMA accumulation of excess fluid in cells, tissue, or cavity, resulting in swelling
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM diagnostic tool used to both confirm a diagnosis of seizures and classify the type of seizure
EMBOLUS/THROMBUS a mass, e.g., blood clot, air, fat, tumor cells, that breaks away into the circulation and obstructs a blood vessel
ENCEPHALITIS infection often transmitted by mosquitoes
ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA EARLY SIGN minor vaginal bleeding or spotting
ENDOMETRIOSIS presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, on structures such as the ovaries, ligaments, or colon
ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA Transmitted by cysts in feces, contaminating food and water
EPIDURAL HEMATOMA contusion, bruise, or clot of blood located between dura and skull
EPINEPHRINE Bronchodilator with rapid action, and short duration
EPITHELIAL CELLS first cells to be most affected by chemo and radiation treatments
ETIOLOGY study of causes of a disease
FAT EMBOLI type of pulmonary emboli from the bone marrow resulting from fracture of a large bone like the femur causing pulmonary inflammation and obstruction
FULL-THICKNESS BURN dry, firm, charred or white surface after burn.
FUROSEMIDE (LASIX) - Hydrocholorathyazide decreases sodium and fluid retention in the body tissues.
GENERAL CUTANEOUS VASODILATION increases peripheral blood flow during periods of the inflammatory process.
ACUTE BILATERAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS may cause acute renal failure
GLUCOCORTICOIDS long-term uses does not give relief of fever, but may result in decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland leading to Cushings disease
GREENSTICK FRACTURE bone is only partially broken, common is softer bones of children
GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME serious autoimmune disorder with inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves leading to ascending paralysis
HEMORRHAGIC CVA blood vessel in part of the brain becomes weak and bursts open, causing blood to leak into the brain. Type of CVA with poorest prognosis for survival.
HEPARIN a substance present in the body to prevent blood clotting – anti-coagulant like coumadin and streptokinase
HISTAMINE chemical mediator released during imflammatory cycle with prostaglandins
HIV Postive HIV and antibodies in the blood, without signs of active infection . HIV infection impairs both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA malignancy involving the T-lymphocytes
HOST-VERSUS-GRAFT Transplant rejection - the host/recipient’s immune system rejects the graft/transplanted organ
HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE/CHOREA inherited adult onset disorder; progressive atrophy of brain affects motor & cognitive functions. 1 of 3 genetic diseases w/disorders of biochem. abnormalities involving neurotransmitters of the brain – other two are Bipolar disorders and schizophrenia.
UNCONTROLLED HYPERTENSION cause ischemia and loss of function to the brain,s kidneys, and retinas
HYPERTROPHY OF THE HEART Increased size of the muscle due to increased size of individual cells
INCUBATION PERIOD time between exposure to microorganism and onset of signs or symptoms
INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ACTIONS onset chem mediators from damaged mast cells & platelets..Vasodilation, incr blood flow ->redness & incr heat; exudation/ leakage of plasma proteins, fluid into tissue/edema ->swelling; Vascular chgs: vasodilation, Incr permeability; Incr blood flow
INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE SIGNS redness, warmth, swelling, pain, freq loss fx
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION Leg pain associated with exercise due to muscle ischemia
KAPOSI’S SARCOMA A skin cancer now frequently associated with AIDS
LEFT VENTRICULAR OUTPUT should = right ventricular output in a normal, healthy heart.
LESION specific local change in tissue
LEUKEMIAS form of cancer primarily treated by chemotherapy
LOCAL VASOCONSTRICTION may be achieved by application of ice to a localized injury to reduce edema
LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS Promotes the formation of atheromas
MELENA black, tarry stool caused by bleeding in the digestive tract (not occult blood)
MENINGITIS infection of the meninges covering the brain and spinal cord causing increased intracranial pressure and Infection
MICROBIAL MUTATION method by which a virus changes slightly during replication
MULTIPLE MYELOMA cancer involving the plasma cells, which invade the bone marrow, destroying bones in the vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, and skull
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS group of chronic progressive disorders, resulting from demyelination in the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
NECROSIS death or destruction of tissue
NEUTROPENIA deficit of neutrophils in the blood caused by chemo and radiation leading to high risk for infections
ORGAN SYSTEM group of organs performing similar or complimentary functions within the body
OSTEODYSTOPHY Associated with chronic renal failure due to the failure of the kidney to activate Vitamin D.
OSTEOPOROSIS loss of bone density and mass leading to fragile bones and spontaneous fractures
OTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION common adverse effect of anti-hypertensive medications
OTORRHEA seepage of CSF from the ear, especially a purulent one
PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROME effects of substances such as hormones secreted by the tumor cells.
EARLY MANIFESTATIONS PARKINSON’S DISEASE tremors while at rest of the hands and difficulty in initiating voluntary movements.
PATHOLOGIC FRACTURE stress or pressure fractures due to disease , chemo, or radiation
CAUSES OF PERICARDITIS (4) Infection, Abnormal immune responses, Injury, Malignant neoplasms
PLEURAL EFFUSION presence of excessive fluid in the pleural cavity
POST-POLIO SYNDROME LATE SIGNS progressive fatigue and weakness
PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE responding to precise microorganism that immune system has not yet encountered
PROGNOSIS probable outcome of a disease
PROSTAGLANDINS chemical mediator along with histamine
PULMONARY EDEMA causes severe hypoxia because of increasing difficulty in expanding the lungs.
PULMONARY EMBOLUS obstruction of a blood vessel in the lungs
RAPID HEALING Promoted by closely approximated edges of a wound
REGENERATION tissue repair through replacement by identical functioning cells
REGIONAL ILEITIS chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the ileum interfering with absorption of proteins and nutrients causing protein and vitamin deficiency
RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE - LATE EFFECTS cardiac arrhythmias and heart murmurs
SCAR TISSUE Consists primarily of collagen fibers
SECONDARY POLYCTHEMIA Associated with severe chronic bronchitis
SECRETIN One of the hormones that is secreted by the duodenum when acidic chyme reaches it and stimulates the pancreas during the digestive process
SEROUS EXUDATE watery secretion
SEVERE ADULT RESPIRATORY SYNDROME - SARS emerging viral infection (coronavirus) that causes severe congestion in the lungs and hypoxia.
SHOCK Decreased circulating blood and tissue perfusion
SICKLE CELL TRAIT A person who inherits one defective gene develops only a small amount of HbS
SPINA BIFIDA Folic acids - supplement prescribed to cut down on the incidence
SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA painless, malignant tumor of the epidermis
STREPTOKINASE an anticoagulant like heparin, coumadin
STROKE VOLUME amt of blood pumped from one ventricle in one contraction
STRUCTURE OF A VIRUS A protein coat which encases either RNA or DNA
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULATION Causes the heart rate to increase
SYPHILIS Bacterial Infection
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS An autoimmune disease caused by immune complex deposits of antinuclear antibodies and is distinguished clinically by inflammation in multiple organs
T-CELL LYMPHOMA a malignancy involving the T-lymphocytes-first develops in a single lymph node then spreads in an orderly fashion
TETRALOGY OF FALLOT congenital heart defect that includes pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy
THALASSEMIA genetic defect in hemoglobin causes premature hemolysis of RBCs and severe anemia
TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACKS Vascular disorder caused by temporary reductions in blood supply in an area of the brain causing brief impairment of speech or motor function
DIRECT TRANSMISSION touching infectious lesion or sexual intercourse
TRICHOMONIASIS SIGNS inflammation of the vagina with a copious yellow discharge and foul odor
UNCONTROLLED HYPERTENSION body organs affected - Primarily: kidney, brain, and retinas
UREMIC SIGNS OF RENAL FAILURE include all organs of the uremic system only (but not other organs)
VARICOSE VEINS dilated and tortuous areas of superficial or deep veins in the legs
VENTRICULAR OUTPUT the volume of blood ejected by a ventricle in one minute - depends on heart rate and stroke volume – will be equal for right and left ventricle in a normal healthy heart
VITAMIN K required by the liver to synthesize prothrombin
YEASTS microorganisms that cause opportunistic infections
BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKING DRUGS prescribed to decrease the sympathetic stimulation of the heart and reduce the force of contractions.
FIBRINOGEN protein that is formed into solid fibrin strands during the clotting process and forms a fibrin mesh around the area in an attempt to localize the injurious agent
HEART MURMUR Defective valves that leak or do not open completely
CONTACT DERMATITIS skin rash resulting from Type IV hypersensitivity reaction or direct irritation following direct exposure to a substance
FEVER caused by the release of pyrogens during an inflammatory process
SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE responding to an exact repeat of microorganism or virus (not a mutated form)
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION involves intermediary such as a contaminated hand or food, objects
VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSION insect or animal serves as intermediary host, ie malaria
DROPLET/AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION inhaling respiratory and salivary excretion of infected person directly or indirectly
TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY allergic reaction: hay fever, asthma; histamine & other chemical mediators released which can cause anything from inflammation/pruritus to anaphylaxis
TYPE II HYPERSENSITIVITY ABO blood incompatability; cyctoxic hypersensitivity; caused by reaction of antigen on blood cells
TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY Immune Complex - autoimmune disorders; antigen & antibody complex deposits in the tissues cause inflammation & vasculitis
TYPE IV HYPERSENSITIVITY Cell-mediated or delayed; contact dermatitis; rash 48-96 hrs after exposure
Created by: 100002653892642