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Psych final 1 part 1

first part of semester 1 final

structuralism person Tichener
functionalism person James
dualism mind is separate from the body
monism mind and the body are together
Wundt experiment name Atoms of the mind
neuroscience perspective biological
evolutionary perspective survival of humans, the past
behavior genetics perspective genetics and environment
psychodynamic perspective feelings and drives
behavioral perspective learn by observation
cognitive perspective mental processes
social-cultural perspective society
hindsight bias I knew it all along
overconfidence we think we know more than we do
3 descriptive research types case study, survey, naturalistic observations
case study studying 1 group or person
survey reports attitudes and opinions of people
naturalistic observations observation without interference
correlation relationship between two variables
experiments show cause and effect
3 types of central tendencies mean, median, mode
2 types of variation range, standard variation
sensory neurons carry incoming information
motor neurons carry outgoing information
interneurons switch between sensory and motor neurons- central nervous system
dendrite branching extension of a neuron that recieves messages
axons extension of a neuron where messages flow down
myelin sheath fatty tissue that increaeses neuron speeds
1 resting poetential ready to go
2 dendrites recieve messages
3 deploarization switch from negative to positive charge
4 threshold firing point
5 action potential firing of a neural impulse
6 release of neurotransmitters result from action potential
7 hyperpolarization recharging of a neuron
8 reuptake vaccuming up of extra neurotransmitters
synapse gap between axon trip and dendrites
agonist mimics
antagonist blocks
AcH movement and memory
Dopamine thinking and emotion
Serotonin mood and hunger
GABA inhibits or slows down
Glutamate excitatory or speeds up
Norepinephrine adrenaline or fight/flight
endorphins kills pain
dopamine + schizophrenia
dopamine - parkinson's disease
serotonin - depression
central nervous system brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system rest of the body
autonomic automatic
somatic voluntary
sympathetic excites
parasympathetic calms
CT scan x-ray photographs
PET scan shows brain activity from radioactive glucose
MRI scan shows brain anatomy
fMRI scan shows blood flow and brain activity
brainstem connects the brain and spinal cord
medulla breathing and heart beat
reticular formation arousal and body systems
pons sleep and dreams
cerebellum balance and movement
limbic system central brain
thalamus sensory switchboard
amygdala primal emotions
hypothalamus regulate body systems
hippocampus memory formation and storage
left hemisphere analytical and verbal
right hemisphere visual and creative
corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres
motor cortex controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex processes body touch and movement sensations
Broca's area physical part of speech
Wernicke's area understanding language
aphasia damage and impairment of language
angular gyrus processing written language
thyroid gland metabolism and growth
adrenal gland adrenaline
testes male, testosterone
ovaries female, estrogen
pancreas insulin
pituitary gland controls the endocrine system
frontal lobe personality and judgement
parital lobe touch and body position
occipital lobe visual
temporal lobe auditory
segments of DNA (metaphor) words
chromosomes (metaphor) pages
DNA (metaphor) Books
genome (metaphor) library
norms expectations
bottom-up processing piecing together information
top-down processing higher level mental processes; short cuts
absolute threshold minimum simulation to detect a stimulus
difference threshold just noticeable difference between two stimuli
jnd just noticeable difference
Weber's law two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage
signal-detection theory brain doesn't pay attention to background
subliminal below threshold
transduction converting energy into neural impulses
light wavelength = hue, color
fast light wavelength color blue
slow light wavelength color red
light amplitude = brightness
cornea (1) membrane that covers the eye
iris (2) muscle tissue that controls the size of the pupil opening
pupil (3) adjustable opening in the eye
lens (4) changes shape to help focus the light
accomidation where the lens changes shape to focus
retina (5) inner-surface of the eye containing rods and cones
fovea (6) central focal point in the retina, by the cones
blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye
optic nerve carries neural impulses to the brain
rods black, white, and gray- dim light
cones bright light- colors
feature detectors respond to specific features of stimulus
parallel processing processing many aspects simultaneously
acuity sharpness of vision
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory cones see red, green, or blue- mixes
opponent process theory red & green, blue & yellow, black & white
color constancy color remains the same even with light changes
audition act of hearing
sound wavelength = pitch
sound amplitude = volume
auditory canal (1) funnels soundwaves
eardrum vibrates when struck by sound
hammer, anvil, and stirrup concentrates the vibrations
oval window entrance to the cochlea
cochlea coiled tube where sound waves trigger nerve impulses
basilar membrane membrance with hairs that vibrate
auditory nerve sends the message to the brain
place theory links pitch with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
frequency theory hairs match and vibrate at the same frequency
conductive hearing loss damage to an ear part
sensory neural hearing loss damage to a hair in the cochlea's membrane
types of touch pressure and temperature
gate control theory spinal cord contains gates that blocks or allows pain signals
taste fancy name gastation
types of taste sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umammi
sensory interaction smell and taste
smell fancy name olfaction
kinesthesis movement
vestibular balance with semicircular canal fluid
selective attention focusing on one particular stimulus
visual capture when sense are competing, vision wins
figure-ground figure is the focal point, the rest is the background
5 types of grouping proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness, closure
visual cliff tests depth perception- glass table and checkerboard floor
2 types of binocular cues retinal disparity, convergence
retinal disparity images from each eye differ
convergence eyes move inward for near objects
phi phenomenon blinking lights create movement
Created by: jducttape
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