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Negative side of the x-ray tube CATHODE
coil of wired that is 2mm in diameter and 1-2 cm long Filament
Filaments are made of thoriated tungsten
Thoriated tungsten has a high melting point 3410 degrees C
the filament is embedded in a metal cup called Focusing cup
Tube current is controlled by filament current
This collection of electrons is termed space charge
Positive side of the x-ray tube Anode
Two types of anodes stationary and rotating
used in dental systems and in some portable units Stationary
area on the anode that is struck by the electrons Target
The target is made of tungsten with rhenium
gives the target added mechanical strength tungsten with rhenium
the entire rotating disc is the target Rotating anode
Radiation intensity is greater on the cathode side of the field than on the anode side Heel Effect
Two types of charts radiographic rating and anode cooling
used to determine the amount of time it takes for the x-ray tube to cool Anode cooling chart
used to determine the maximum time and kVp that can be used for a given mA station Radiographic rating chart
Radiation produced from outside of the focal spot Extrafocal Radiation
EXTRAFOCAL RADIATION CAUSES increase exposure to the patient and decreased image contrast
Most anodes rotate at 3,400 rpm
The shaft of the anode is made of molybdenum
receives electrons from the cathode and conducts them back through the cables to the high voltage generator ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR
Three purposes for the anode 1. Electrical Conductor 2. Provides mechanical support for the target 3. Acts as a good thermal regulator
When projectile electrons interact with the anode 99% of the kinetic energy is converted to heat
The small focal spot is for better spatial resolution
The large focal spot is used for large body parts
small filament 0.1 to 1.0 mm
large filament 0.4 to 2.0 mm
the maximum number of electrons are boiled off saturation current
When the current in the filament is high ~4A and above – outer shell electrons are boiled off thermionic emission
Discovery of X-rays Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
received first Nobel prize in physics in 1901 Roentgen
First medical x-ray his wife’s hand in 1896
X-Ray radiation is a type of ionizing radiation
Bundles of energy photon
Similar to an electron Beta particles
m/c terrestrial gas to woory about radan
Created by: hakrrins