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Film Processing

H B Film Processing

red safelight can be used with blue and green
amber safelight can only be used with blue
CA wants you to use what safelight red
any combination of mA and time to get the same mAs reciprocity law
Films sensitive to Green Light orthochromatic
films are most sensitive to green and blue light
Removes white areas of the film and allows it to have an archival quality to keep for years fixing
PROCESSING STEPS wetting, developing, fixing, wash and drying
changes the silver ions of the exposed crystals to metallic silver developing
developing agent reducing agent
causes the emulsion to swell so chemicals in the baths can reach all parts of the emulsion wetting
The latent image is converted to the manifest image developing
does not allow unexposed silver halide crystals to be reduced to metallic silver --- fog restrainer
preservative – to prevent oxidation of the developer sodium sulfite
Hardener present in the developing solution glutaraldehyde
prevent unexposed silver halide crystals from being developed Restrainers
Principle component of developer hydroquinone
migrates through the gelatin and is released from the film bromide
contains alkali agents developer
what chemicals are in the buffer solution sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide
its purpose is to remove unexposed and undeveloped silver halide crystals from the emulsion hypo or thiosulfate
The clearing agent is known as hypo or thiosulfate
One of the most common clearing agents used is ammonium thiosulfate
neutralizes the pH of the emulsion and stops the development process activator
stops the development process The fixer
Hyporetention is prevented by adequate washing
Retention of the fixer on the film will cause the film to have a yellow-brown appearance
Warm air is blown over both surfaces of the film DRYING
TYPES OF FILM screen and direct exposure
film used with radiographic screens Screen film
non-screen film Direct exposure film
X-ray film is sensitive to white light and x-ray radiation
radiation and white light can cuase fog
film must be kept in a light tight container
X-ray film is sensitive to both heat and humidity
heat and humidity can cause increase fog
have a transport system consisting of multiple rollers in racks Automatic processors
If there is dirt on the roller it will mark the film every 3.14 inches
artifacts on the film due to dirt on the roller Pi Lines
The rollers are driven by chains, gears, or belts
rollers sizes are usually 1” in diameter
temperature that under develops film cold
temperature that over develops film hot
Both need to be replenished during processing Developer and Fixer
DIRECT EXPOSURE FILM Thicker emulsion i
film mostly used only by dentristy direct exposure
x-ray film is sensitive to various colors of light Spectral matching
light from screen exposes the adjacent emulsion but can also cross the base and expose the opposite side emulsion, crossover
Crossover leads to image unsharpness (blur)
what affects speed of the film size and shape of crystal
The faster the speed the less radiation is needed
black and white with a few shades of gray High contrast
contains a clearing and hardening agent fixer
Created by: hakrrins