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Physics Most Missed

radt 334

Ionizing radiation is capable of removing _________ from atoms as it passes through. Electrons
Z of molybdenum is 42 & A is 98. How many neutrons does it have? 56
The study of objects at rest & in motion is the branch of Physics called _________ mechanics
energy is measured in: joules or electron volts
ice and steam are examples of two forms of matter
elements being composed of identical atoms John Dalton
velocity = m/s
The chemical element is determined by the number of _____________ in the atom protons
Atoms of various elements combine to form: molecules
Kinetic Energy: 1/2 mv^2
Atomic number of an element is symbolized by what letter? Z
Energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency
Photons tend to interact with matter __________ it’s wavelength equal in size to
4 properties of photons: frequency, wavelength, velocity, amplitude
Smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic radiation: photon
Frequency: rate of rise and fall of sine wave
Velocity is: constant
Intensity of radiation is reduced with distance because: its spread over a greater area
What is the difference between self induction and mutual induction? mutual induction requires 2 coils, self induction requires 1 coil
An induction motor is used in x-ray imaging systems to rotate the anode
Degree to which a material can be magnetized is magnetic susceptibility
When the tube sock ran down the hallway, excess___________ rubbed off the current and cause the tube sock to become______________? electrons, electrified
The electrification occurs through the movement of: only electron
Like charges________ and unlike________. Repel, Attract
electronstatic force is _____ proportinal to the dirsncce between charge and ______ proprtional to the product of charge. inversely, and directly
The charges on an electrofied object are distributed: Evenly througout the object
On the surface of an electrofied object, the charge consentrates: on sharpest point
A ___________ is a Direct current? battery
Electrofied potential applied to a conductor produces: electric current and magnetic field
An alternating current is represented by a __________ line. sinusoidal
Alternating current is produced b a __________. generator
What is ohm's law? I=V/R
A charged patricale in motion creates a: magnetic field
Electrical power is measured in _________. watts
Rubber and glass are ______. insulators
The rotation of electrons on their axis is the properly called: electron spin
In the U.S. alernating current does thru a complete cycle every __________ second. 1/60th
What is the SI unit of magnetic field strength? tesla
1st batteries were made of stacks of: zinc and copper
The magnetic intensity of an electromagnet is greatly increased by addition of ___________. iron
Oersted dicovered that an electric current flowing through a wire would affect a nearby _________. compass
Faradays experiments proved that a current could be induced if magnetic field is ____________. changing
An electical component that uses self induction. transformers
In the diagram above, Thumb Rule, what do the fingers(2nd-5th) represent magnetic field direction
In the diagram above, Thumb Rule, what does the thumb represent current direction
In a Series Circuit, which is true total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances
In a Parallel Circuit, which is true total current is equal to the sum of individual currents
What device measures electron flow ammeter
What is the difference in self-induction vs. mutual induction self-induction has 1 coil, mutual induction has 2 coils
Difference in waveform between primary and secondary sides of the high voltage transformer: amplitude
Tube rating chart shows ____ max exposure times
When voltage is increased through step up transformers, amperage decreases. true
Lowest power rating generator: single phase
What is outside of a glass envelope? stators
Amperage _____________ when voltage is ____________. decreases, increases
Small focal spot allows for longer exposure time than a larger one. false
_______________ is added to decrease patient dose. filtration
Main reason xray beam weakens as it travels away from tube divergence of beam
in a single phase fully rectified, you need 2 rectifiers false
The principle disadvantage of three-phase equipment is ______. efficency
Cracking and pitting on the anode is caused by a single excessive exposure causing temp to be excessive and long exposure times causing temps to increase rapidly
The operating console contains circuits that are low voltage only
With half-wave rectification the current flows through the x-ray tube during _______ part of the cycle . positive
The voltage of an auto transformer receives windings. true
To make a single phase unit fully rectified you would need 2 rectifiers false
Incident x-ray interacts with target atom which releases another x-ray of equal energy in a different direction coherent scatter
Interactions of electrons of inner shell of target atoms characteristic electrons
What happens on the emission spectum with Increasing mAs? increasing mAs
What is another name for penetrability? quality
contrast agents increase differential absorption and photoelectron absorption: compton scatter
What is the result of Higher kVp? more patient dose
Characteristic K-shell x-ray of tungsten atoms have effective energy of: 69 KeV
If filter thickness is______________then x-ray intensity is_____________. increase, decrease
Beam quality if affected by kVp filtration
As kvp _____________ the probably of photo electron absorption ___________. decreases, decreases
Occurs with x-ray below 10kev coherant scatter
What scatters in Different directions? coherant scatter
Photoelectric effect What? causes bone to appear radiopaque
(single phase) HU= kVp x mA x sec x gen
Rutherford experiment in 1911 showed that the atom was composed of nucleus with an electron cloud
SI unit for power watt
___ is source of radiation in the xray tube focal spot
the ____ provides electrons for xray tube current filament
variations in power distributions supplied to xray machine are corrected by line voltage copmensator
each tube has its own tube rating chart to show max exposure times
increasing kVp setting on control console will increase number of electrons false
weight= mass times gravity
momentum= mass times velocity
work= force times distance
power= work divided by time
kinetic energy= 1/2mr^2
potential energy= mgh
roentgen exposure
rad absorbed dose to patient
rem effective dose that's absorbed
curie radioactivity
British units foot, pounds, seconds
SI units meters, kilogram, seconds
frequency and wavelength are inversely related
frequency and energy are directly related
quantity mAs
quality kV
latent image unprocessed image
manifest image after development
type 1 histogram spike at end (right)= blackness, direct exposure spike
type 2 histogram no spike, anatomy filled image receptor
type 3 histogram spike in front and back, front= whiteness back= blackness
CR steps radiation IP, high energy state, laser light, release electrons, PMT, stable state, white light
detector quantum efficiency ability to absorb xrays
conversion efficiency how easily does the image receptor give off light compared to absorbing it, want high CE, low DQE
focal spot size is measured with? pinhole camera
wire mesh test check for warped screen, cassettes, or films
reciprocity changing mA and time stations
reproducability keep same mAs and making same exposure over and over
linearity make exposure 5 mAs and then 10 mAs then 20 mAs should be double the density each time you double the number
QA= checking people
QC= checking equipment
film should be stored at what humidity 40-60%
exposure artifacts dust, dirt, jewelry, braids, piercings, pt motion
storage artifacts dust and dirt
processing artifacts pi lines, hesitation marks, guide shoe marks
storage and handling artifacts static and fog
outcome assessment consistency of radiologist
digital imaging- over/ under exposure 120% over, 60% under
Roentgens measurements for xrays include quantity, exposure, and intensity
Created by: meechthebeech91