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physics final

radt 334

electromagnetic energy- examples x-rays are a form, radio wave, light waves, etc
4 properties of photons frequency: rate of rise and fall of a sine wave; frequency, wavelength, velocity, and amplitude
which property of photons is consant velocity, x-rays speed of light or not at all
atom smallest particle of an element that cannot be divided or broken by chemical means
chemical compound one type of molecule
molecule combination of two or more types of atoms
mechanical physics branch of physics we study objects at rest and in motion
photon bundle of energy
frequency number of cycles or wavelengths of a simple harmonic motion per unit of time; expressed in 1 Hz= 1 cycle
Hertz 1/60 of a second
ammeter measures amperage
voltmeter measures voltages
extrafocal radiation radiation produced from rebounding electrons landing on other areas of the target, not at actual focal spot, electrons slammed into anode
attenutation product of absorption and scattering
differential absorption different degrees where x-rays
Pi line every 3.14 inches, from 1 inch transport rollers, from dirty roller, perpendicular to path of travel
guide shoe marks scratches with film travel, parallel to direction of film travel
light leak leak in area we store film, busted film bin, streaking effect, high optical density, fog type mixture, sharp streak, but part that are ok on film
ionization remove electron from atom, atom that lost one is a postiive charge
solenoid coil of wire
electronmagnet vary intense by changing how much electricy goes thru wire, hooked up to electrcity
space charge electron boiled off filament, high charge and block electrons from being boiled off because of space charge
line-focus principle angling anode get smaller effective focal spot, helps maintain recorded detail, and increases area for heat
xray intensity quantity of xray photons, number of photons, exposure
voltage ripple fluctuation of energy from 0 to peak back down to 0
generators and percentages- how it affects quantity and quality and power rating
examples of energy electrical energy, heat, potential energy, etc
british system of measurement
SI system of measurment
MKS system of measurment
CGS system of measurment
basic quantities in mechanics are mass, length, and time
derived quantity and examples combination of 2 or more base quantity, force, momentum, work
history of atoms
chemical element is determined by...
z number
binding energy is determined by...
atomic mass of 95, and atomic number of 40 what is the number of electrons
in normal state, the electrical charge of an atom is
innermost shelton is called
electromagnet energy
smallest quantity of
wave equation
energy photon directly related to
photons interact with matter that have wavelengths_____ their own wavelength
as photon frequency increases, energy _____ and wavelength of the photon
like charges ____,
direct current
indirect current
how do we change direct current to indirect
electric current and relationship to magnetism
a charged partile in motion will create
electron rotation on their axis is called
magnetic force relationship to field strngeth and distance
magnetic susceptiblilty
faraday experiment
how do you make an electromagnet with a coil of wire
x-ray circuit
operatinf console contains circuits that are ____ voltage
purpose of transformers
step down transformer
step up transformer
types of induction
how many windings do step up transformers have
how many windings do step down transformers have
why do we use transformers
what type of current is needed for transformers
purpose of voltage compensator
what section of circuit provides electrons for tube current
advantages of single phase, 3 phase, high frequency
what happenes to waveform between primary and secondary sides
operating console- low or high voltage
what is the relationship between voltage and amperage
what do electrons interact with
where are x-rays made
which direction do electrons flow in the xray tube
malfunction results from tungsten coating the inside of tube
dual focus tubes has how many filaments
how does the anode rotate
what causes anode cracking
t/f: kVp controls the number of xrays emitted at the filment false
most of the ______ energy of the projectle electrons is converted to ___
how does an xray tube primarly cool
HU calculations
discete characteristic= distance (bar graph)
continuous brehmshlung
max. energy is continuous spectrum max. kV set at operating console
quantity= amplitude
quality= position, how far to the rt or lt
HVL half value layer, measure of equality, digital dosimeter, place sheets of aluminum
15% increase kVp shift to rt, xrays more efficeint, decrease mAs
factors affecting (increase)
filtration filt increases, reduction in amplitude
largest source of manmade ionizing radiation exposure to the public radon
year x-rays discovered 1895
who discovered xrays wilhem reontgen
what is the purpose of adding filtration
primary cooling process of an x-ray tube
two types of xray production
bremshlung xrays are produced by ____
know different types of characterists of each***** rephrase
what direction do compton scatter rays go
xray interaction with an atom without ionizing during _____
results in an xrat of equal energy being releases in a different direction coherant
scattered photon that retains up to 2/3 of the incident, xrays original energy happens during what interaction
how does kvp affect
two primary forms of interaction in diagnostic energy ranges are what
what role does mass density play
interactions of diff absoption
atomic number role
contrast role
what affects transmitted xrays
latent image
manifest image
histogram types- spikes at front and/ or back or no spike
histogram formation- importance of collimation computers cannot fix poor collimation errors
CR steps 1. radiation to IP 2. trap high energy state 3. IP exposed to laser light 4. release electrons 5. PMT detects light of electrons 6. stable state 7. IP exposed to intense white light
detector quantum effiency
conversion efficency
QC programs include acceptance testing, routine performance monitoring and maintence
focal spot size is measured in..... pin hole camera
wire mesh test warped screens, cassettes, and films
reciprocity changing mA at time station
reproducablilty keep same mAs but keeping same exposure
linearity 5 mAs bumped up to 10 mAs, see double the density
accuracy of collimator/ kVp (10%)
QA people checking
QC equipment checking
film should be stored at what humidity 40-60%
exposure, processing, storage, and handling
static pi lines, guide shoe marks, dirt/dust, patient motion, foreign objects
outcome assessment
digital imaging (over or under exposure)
3 parts of xray imaging system operating console, high voltage gen, xray tube
single phase= 100% voltage ripple
3 phase 6 pulse= 13%
3 phase 12 pulse= 4%
high frequency= 1%; lower quantity and quality
Created by: meechthebeech91