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Ketones strong acids that cause the body's pH o drop
Growth hormone (GH) also called somatropin; stimlates cells to grow and divide
estrogen responsible for: development of secondary sex characteristics, form oseoblasts, inhibit osteoclasts, and bone loss
hormones transfer info & instructions from one set of cells to another. each hormone affects only cells that are genetically programmed to receive and respond. divided into 2 groups according to structure: steroids, peptides and amines.
pancreas only organ that has both endocrine and exocrine functions; produces insulin and glucagon
hypothalamus controls the activity of the pituitary gland
hypoglycemic blood glucose levels <70mg/dl
corticosteroids 3 different families. mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones.
calcitonin regulates level of calcium in bloodstream
thyroid gland needs iodine to make hormones.
glucagon raises blood sugar levels. produced by alpha cells. releases glucose in bloodstream.
adrenocirticotropin hormone (ACTH) regulates function of adrenal cortex
adrenal mendulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. critical during emergency situations. increases blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) also called vasopressin. promotes water reabsorption by the kidney tubules
lutenizing hormone (LH) stimulates secretion of sex hormones. plays a role in releasing ova in females.
adrenal glands 2 glands; adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. one located above each kidney
oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery. after birth stimulates release of milk from breasts.
pineal gland secretes melatonin. plays a role in regulating the body's circadian rhythm.
insulin lowers blood sugar levels. produced by beta cells. stimulates cells of body to take in glucose from bloodstream.
testosterone produces male secondary sexual characteristics. regulates sperm production
pituitary gland called the "master gland" because it controls many other glands. divided into anterior and posterior glands.
thymus gland part of immune system. endocrine gland. essential for growth and development of thymic lymphocytes or T cells.
progesterone prepares lining of uterus for implantation of fertilized egg. also maintains a healthy prostate for men.
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) responsible for development of ova (egg) and sperm. also stimulates ovary to secrete estrogen.
pre-diabetic blood glucose levels 100-140 mg/dl
exocrine glands release secretions into duct that carries them to outside of the body. ex. sweat glands
endocrine glands release hormones directly into bloostream. have no ducts, referred to as ductless glands. ex. thyroid gland.
major components of the endocrine system pituitary gland and hypothalamus
secondary components of endocrine system thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads
parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates level of calcium in bloodstream
female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) replacement female hormones may be delivered from anime, plant, or lab-modified sources
diabetes mellitus a disorder in which blood sugar (glucose) levels are abnormally high because the body does not produce enough insulin. 3rd leading cause of death in U.S. type 1 and type 2.
types of diabetes diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, secondary diabetes, and gestational diabetes
symptoms of diabetes polyuria, nocturia, hunger, weight loss, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, visual changes, glycosuria, numbness and tingling, slow wound healing, fruity breath
gluconeogenesis the formation of glucose from protein and fatty acids
ketoacidosis diabetic coma
forms of insulin rapid-acting, intermediate-acting, long-acting
oral hypoglycemic drugs used in treatment of type 2 diabetes. 4 subclasses: sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones.
metformin (Glucophage) biguanide drug. common. increases uptake of glucose into tissues, therefore lowering blood sugar levels.
compare and contrast diabetes and diabetes mellitus insipidus: results from decreased ADH. causes tumors, brain injury. mellitus: types 1 and 2. juvenile onset diabetes and adult onset diabetes.
secondary diabetes drug induced
gestational diabetes occurs during second and third trimesters of pregnancy
endocrine and reproductive system disorder causes effects of aging, genetic factors, condition affecting another part of the body
giantism increase of growth hormone in children
acromegaly increase growth hormone in adults
compare and contrast hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism hyperthyroidism: excess thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. treatment removal of tumors. hypothyroidism: overall deficiency, affects all organs of body. tumors are usually benign
synthroid (levothyroxine sodium) can be cardiotoxic.
hypercalcemia increased levels of calcium
risk factors of osteoporosis gender, race, heredity, low calcium intake, smoking, alcohol, lack of weight bearing exercise
estrogenic hormones estriol, estrone, estradiol
infertility defined as the failure to conceive after one year of regular unprotected intercourse. in women can be treated with antiestrogenic drugs
in men infertility can be treated with antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-erectile dysfunction agents
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) beneficial for men with gonadotropin deficiency and hypogonadism; good for restoring sperm production after chemotherapy
viral STDs and bacterial STDs viral, cannot be cures; symptoms managed with medication. bacterial, curable with antibiotics
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) the major cause of infertility worldwide
three ways birth control works prevent ovulation, cervix produces less and thicker mucus so that sperm cannot easily enter the uterus, the lining of the uterus becomes thinner
two types of birth control progesterone only (lacks estrogen) and combination pills (estrogen and progesterone)
Created by: SpecialK1942



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