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X-rays are a form of electromagnetic energy (ex: radio waves, light waves, etc.) electromagnetic energy
What are the four properties of photons? frequency, velocity, wavelength and amplitude
Of the four properties of photons, which one is constant? velocity
Chemical compound is _______ one type of molecule
A branch of physics where you study objects in rest and objects in motion mechanical physics
A bundle of energy in a an x-ray is known as a _____ photon
The rate of rise and fall of a sine wave or the number of cycles or wavelengths of a simple harmonic motion per unit of time (Hz) frequency
1/60 of a second in the US or also known as one cycle per second Hertz
Measures amperage ammeter
measures the voltage in a line volt meter
radiation that is produced by rebounding electrons that are landing on other areas of the target (not on the actual focal point), each time they interact with parts of the anode they produce radiation extrafocal radiation
the product of absorption and scatter attenuation
the different degrees by which different tissues will absorb x-rays photons results in varying contrast and density differential absorption
occur every 3.14 inches from dirty 1 inch transport rollers, occur perpendicular to film travel Pi lines
scratches parallel with film travel Guide shoe mark
What cause a light leak resulting in high optical density (usually in a streaking fashion) on the film? leak in film storage and exposes film
Remove an electron from the atom, atom has become ionized; the removed electron and remainder atom form an ion pair, electron is negative so the atom that lost electron is positive ionization
coil of wire solenoid
hook up electricity and vary the electrical voltage and make an electromagnet we can vary its intensity by how much current is running through the wire electromagnet
What are the three parts of an x-ray imaging system? operating console, high voltage generator and the x-ray tube
having a whole bunch of electrons being boiled off the filament and they essentially create a negative charge since they clump together into a cloud (little bitty space) space charge
The principle by which if we angle the anode we end up with a smaller effective focal spot allowing us to keep recorded detail while increasing the amount of area for heat on a focal spot by angling we can still have a small focspt w/ large heat composite line focus principle
The quantity of photons, the exposure x-ray intensity
If increase the SID the X-rays travel in a straight line isotropically greater area for x-rays to so as the SID is larger can beside the film affects of increasing the SID
fluctuation of energy from zero to peak (or trough) and back down to zero voltage ripple
single phase generator 100%
3 phase 6 pulse 13% (set of three start times with x-ray beam always on)
3 phase 12 pulse 4%
high frequency generators less than 1%
Generators and Percentages: how do they affect quantity and quality and power rating high voltage ripples have lower quantity and quality of X-rays being produced and a lower power rating
What does ALARA stand for? As Low As Reasonably Achievable
Something that should not be on the image artifact
What are electrical energy, heat, potential energy and kinetic energy examples of? energy
What are ice and steam examples of? matter
What are some units of measurement? energy, power-watt, work, electricity, etc.
What are the systems of measurement? British, SI, MKS, and CGS
British foot, pound, second
SI meter, kilogram, second (what the rest of the world uses)
MKS meters, kilograms, second
CGS centimeters, grams, seconds
The basic qualities in mechanics are _____ _____ and _____ mass, length, time
This is going to be two or more of the base qualities like force or momentum derived quantity
Who was the first person to describe the element of being composed of identical atoms? Dalton
Who created the model of the atom we still use today? Bohr
Who conducted experiments in 1911 that determined that the atom had a nucleus with an electron cloud? Rutherford
The number of protons associated with an element determines the ___ Chemical Element
What is the symbol for the number of protons? Z number
What determines the binding energy? the orbital shell level of the electron (Inner shell k, l, m,n)
If an element has an atomic mass of 95 and an atomic number of 40, what is the number of neutrons? Atomic Mass - Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons
In a normal state, the electrical charge of an atom is? zero or neutral
What is the innermost shell called? K shell
Same number of protons as another but a different number of neutrons isotope
identical atom that exists at different energy states isomer
What is the smallest quantity of electromagnetic energy? photon
What is the wave equation? C = frequency * wavelength
The energy of a photon is directly related to _____ frequency
Photons interact with matter that has wavelengths _____ their own wavelengths similar, equal in size
As photon energy increases, energy ____ and the wavelength of the photon _____ Increases, decreases
What would the theory of relativity be useful for in radiology? E=mc^2 can actually be used to calculate the mass equivalent of an x-ray photon
like charges _____, unlike charges _____ repel, attract
electric potential is measured in ____ volts
how does electrification occur movement of electrons
Charges concentrate where on the surface of an electrified object sharpest curvature
electrostatic force relationship to distance and product of charges inversely related to distance and directly related to the product of the charges
example of a direct current battery
example of an indirect current generator
How do we change from an direct to indirect? Through the use of rectification or a commutator ring in an electric generator
how many rectifiers are needed to completely invert the negative side of the sine wave? four rectifiers
the electrical component that works through self-induction transformer
Series circuit laws regarding resistance Rt=R1+R2+R3
Parallel circuit regarding current It=I1+I2+I3
Ohm's law V = IR
electric current and relationship to magnetism perpendicular to path of the current
a charged particle in motion will create a ______ magnetic field
electron rotation on their axis is called electron spin
magnetic force relationship to field strength and distance the magnetic force is proportional to the product of the field strengths divided by the square of the distance between them
the degree to which a material can be magnetized magnetic susceptibility
permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. In other words, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field
what did faraday's experiment prove? a current could be induced by a magnetic field if that field is changing
how do you make an electromagnet with a coil of wire? solenoid coil of wire and then turn electricity on to create a current through the wire then as we change that current we can change how strong a magnet we have
The operating console contains circuits that are _____ voltage low
What is the purpose of a transformer? convert electric potential into high or low intensities moving it up or down
Which has more windings on the primary side, step up or step down transformer? step down
how much does a step up transformer change the voltage? increase voltage, amperage drops/voltage drops, amperage increases
What are the two types of induction? self and mutual
What does step up and down transformers use? mutual induction
What does the autotransformer use (one winding)? self induction
Why do we use transformers? change our electrical potential
What type of current is needed for transformers? alternating
Where is the autotransformer located in a circuit? at the beginning of the circuit, just trying to change the voltage a little bit (minor changes)
Where is the step up transformer located? between the secondary and primary, stepping up from volt to kilovolt
Where is the step down transformer located? filament circuit, creates the electrons that will be boiled off
What is the purpose of the line voltage compensator? minor adjustments to line voltage coming in
What section provides electrons for the tube current? filament circuit
no rectification 60 pulses per second
1/2 wave rectification 60 pulses per second
full wave 120 pulses per second
3 phase 360 pulses per second
advantage of higher up generators the higher up you go the better quality of x-rays you have
disadvantage of higher up generators the higher up you go the more expensive it is and the single phase has more patient dose with a lot more x-rays being needed
what happens to waveform between primary and secondary sides the waveform changes in amplitude
is the operating condole a high or low voltage components low
What is inside the glass envelope? rotor (spins)
What is outside the glass envelope? stators (windings that we pass electricity through in a progressional pattern)
What is the filament made of? Tungsten
What do electrons interact with? outer and inner shell electrons at the target
where are the x-rays made? at the focal spot
which direction do electrons flow in the x-ray tube cathode to anode
what malfunction results from tungsten coating the incise of the tube? arching: electrons get stuck to the side of the glass envelope
dual focus tubes have how many filaments? two
how does an anode rotate? induction motor, magnetic field that is trying to align with constantly
Radiographic rating chart is used for what maximum exposure times for the tube
what causes anode cracking single excess exposure
true/false: kVp controls the number of x-rays emitted at the filament false; kVp will increase the efficiency of X-ray production
most of the ____ energy of the projectile electrons is converted to ____ kinetic, heat
How does an x-ray tube primarily cost? radiation
discrete characteristic
continuous bremstraulung
maximum energy of a continuous energy spectrum? maximum kV set at the operating console maximum energy point of the energy spectrum
quantity amplitude
quality position
Half value layer is a measurement of beam quality HVL
As you increase your kVp there will be a shift to the right, x-ray production becomes more efficient so we will have higher quantity of x-rays at the higher kV's, this is why we reduce mAs 15%
If filtration increases reduce amplitude and shift to right (take out photons)
If kVp increases increase amplitude and shift to right (increases overall energy of the beam)
If mAs increases increases amplitude only (direct proportion)
cause more efficient X-ray production kvp
largest source of manmade ionizing radiation exposure to the public medical radiation
year of X-ray discovery 1895
who discovered xray whillhelm rotegen
largest source of background radiation radon
traditional units, also known as customary units what we use in the US, rest of the world uses SI system Radiation units
measuring radiation in air only Roentgen
radiation received by the patient rad
occupational dose rem
measure of radioactivity curie
what is the purple of adding filtration takes out the low energy photons that we don't want
primary cooling process of an X-ray tube radiation
two types of X-ray production characteristic and bremsstrahlung
bremsstrahlung X-rays are produced by slowing electrons (the majority of the X-ray beam created at the target is Bremsstrahlung)
what direction do compton scatter rays go any direction
X-rays interact with an atom without ionization during Coherent Scattering
what is coherent scattering EQUAL ENERGY being released; an X-ray that results with equal energy because no ionization took place, no energy was lost, the X-rays simply scattered into a different direction
scattered photons that retains up to 2/3 of the incident X-rays original energy happens during what interaction? compton scattering
what is compton scattering very little energy is necessary because it interacts with the outer shell electrons, they are very loosely bound
during this diagnostic energy range interaction (compton and photoelectric), the energy of the incident X-ray photon is completely absorbed photoelectric effect
how does kVp effect photoelectric absorption? if kvp increases, photoelectric absorption will decrease
two primary forms of interaction in diagnostic energy range are what photoelectric and compton
what interaction involves an annihilation reaction pair production, this will occur at 1.02 Mev and interact with the nuclear field
at energies above 10 mev, _____ interaction can take place photodisintegration
what is photodisintegration photon goes into the nucleus and nucleus has way too much energy and destroys itself
what role does mass density play if the mass density of the tissue you are x-raying increases (number of atoms in tissue) differential absorption increases
What is the role of the atomic number? If atomic number increases (# of protons), if you have more electrons for these radiation photons to interact w/ chances are ur probability is increased automatically that u're going to have more interactions of photoelectric absorption or compton scatter
What is contrast's role in imaging? anytime we inject someone with contrast we are increasing the atomic number and the mass density of the tissues that the contrast is in
What affects transmitted X-rays? what your kvp is, the higher the kvp the easier the X-rays can transmit through the patient. Atomic number and mass density will also play a role, if both go up we won't have as many transmitted xrays
What is the manifest image? final (visible) image (during processing/developing)
What is the latent image? What happens immediately after exposure (this is the unprocessed image, image on the film before it actually gets developed) (during exposure)
Histogram Type 1 large spike toward the back (right side-blackness); direct exposure spike from anatomy that did not completely fill the IR
Histogram Type 2 big hill; no spikes on either side since anatomy filled the IR
Histogram Type 3 spike on front and back; spike on front is whiteness and back is blackness; contrast or prosthesis
What is the importance of histogram collimation? computer cannot fix poor collimation, can fix 120% over exposure or 60% under exposure
CR Steps (1&2 of 5) 1. Radiation strikes imaging plate 2. Electrons of phosphors raised and trapped in higher energy state
Cr Steps (3-5 of 5) 3. imaging plate exposed to laser light to release electrons 4. photomultiplier tube detects light emission of electrons as they return to their stable state 5. imaging plate exposed to intense white light
the ability to absorb xrays detector quantum efficiency
how easily does the image receptor give off light in comparison to the X-rays absorbed conversion efficiency
want an IR that can absorb X-rays easily and readily lower DQE and CE and have a lower patient dose
QC program includes acceptance testing, routine performance monitoring and maintenance
focal spot size is measured with a ____ pinhole camera
warped screens, warped cassettes, worn felt contacts, basically how well is our IR lining up with our film and our screen wire mesh test
Changing your mA and your time station for the same mAs you should get the same density and mR output reciprocity
keeping the exact same mAs and just simply making the same exposure over and over resulting in the same density reproducibility
make an exposure at 5 mAs then 10 mAs then 20 mAs, each time that we double it we should be seeing double the amount of density linearity
accuracy of the collimator kVp - 10%
QA people
QC equipment
film should be stored at what humidity 40-60%
dust/dirt, foreign objects, patient motion and fog are examples of what exposure artifacts
pi lines, guide shoe marks, hesitation marks and fog are examples of what processing artifacts
static, fog, kink, dust or dirt artifacts are from storage and handling
checking how consistently our radiologists image interpretations match the ultimate patient diagnosis outcome assessment
120% over/60% under exposure can be tolerated in ____ ____; much wider exposure latitude digital imaging
Created by: sarahdugan