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MGT 305- Final

five forms of departmentalization functional, product-service, geographic location, customer classification, process
functional departmentalization engineering, accounting, etc.; can lead to poor communication
product-service departmentalization like GE, can lead to duplication
geographic departmentalization end up with isolation and duplications
customer classification departmentalization type of customer
process departmentalization can have conflict b/w groups
chain of command the continuous line of authority that extends from upper levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the organization and clarifies who reports to whom
factors affecting centralization environment, people, decisions, organization
centralization & environment stable=central
centralization & people unskilled=central
centralization & organization smaller=central
centralization & decisions crisis=central
work specialization traditional vs. modern then: it would make it more efficient now: it's more efficient, but it can't be taken too far
formalization used less and less; employees need leeway (one of 6 key elements of organizational structure)
mechanistic vs. organic operations mechanistic: departmentalization, centralization, formalization organic: non-standardized, empowerment, wide span of control
strategy and structure certain structural designs work best with different strategies (ie-flexibility for organic; stability for mechanistic)
size and structure larger organizations have more specialization, departmentalization, centralization, rules, etc.
Woodward's findings unit vs. mass. vs. process production
Woodward: unit production low formalization, organic
Woodward: mass production high formalization, mechanistic
Woodward: process production low formalization, organic
environmental uncertainty and structure stable/simple= mechanistic; uncertain=flexible/organic
team structure organization is made of teams that do the organization's work
matrix structure specialists from different departments to work on projects together
project structure employees continuously work on projects
virtual organizations small core of full-time employees; outside temporary specialists
network organizations employees do networks of outside suppliers to provide components or processes
organizational design challenges today (2) keeping employees connected; global structural issues
controlling the process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance
three steps of control process measuring actual performance -> comparing actual against standard -> taking managerial action
why is WHAT measured more important than HOW? selecting the wrong criteria can create serious problems; what is measured determines what employees will do
the courses of action managers can take in controlling no nothing; correct actual performance; revise the standard
measures of organizational performance productivity; organizational effectiveness; rankings
feedforward control anticipates problems
concurrent control corrects problems as they happen
feedback control corrects problems after they occur
financial measures managers can use liquidity; leverage; activity; profitability
balanced scorecard looks at financial, customer, internal, and people to assess performance
benchmarking looking for the best practices amongst competitors
three TQM tools flowchart, control chart, cause-and-effect
PDCA plan, do, check, act
Deming management quality, customers, fix the system
4 of Deming's 14 points teamwork, drive fear out, continuous improvement, avoid slogans
6 sigma 6 standard deviations (defects per million opportunities)
how to adjust for cross-cultural differences? be aware of laws, technology, differences in data
workplace concerns privacy and employee theft
control and customer interactions productivity in providing the service
corporate governance; how changing? the system used to govern a corporation so that the interests of the owners are protected; board of directors now, auditing
value chain managing the sequence of activities and information that add value at each step from raw materials to finished product
first-line managers store managers etc
middle managers district managers
top managers C-level
functional approach of management plan, organize, lead, control
Mintzberg management roles approach interpersonal, informational, decisional
efficiency vs. effectiveness efficient: most output from least input effectiveness: "doing the right things"
how organizations are changing ethics, security, technology
personality combination of emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns that affects how people interact and react
E/I Myers-Briggs extroverted/introverted
N/S Myers-Briggs intuitive/sensing
F/T Myers-Briggs thinking/feeling
J/P Myers-Briggs judging/perceiving
Big Five Personality extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience
affect vs. emotion vs. mood affect (overall) emotion: short term mood: longer term
attribution theory "it's not my fault if this goes wrong" "if it goes wrong with him it's his fault"
personality types across different cultures conscientiousness similar in all cultures; locus of control higher in North Americans
perception perceiver; target; situation
impact of emotions on the workforce managers need to understand that people bring their emotions with them to work
job satisfaction biggest factor is the manager
culture collection of shared values, beliefs, rituals, myths, heros, language
culture characteristics (6) collective, emotionally charged, historically based, symbolic, dynamic, fuzzy
symptoms of a week organizational culture (4) inward focus, morale, fragmentation, subcultures
where does culture come from? the CEO
ADKAR; how do you change a culture? awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement
Cameron and Freeman model of culture types (draw it out) *organic vs mechanistic; internal vs. external
basic communication model sender (encode) ->medium (noise) ->receiver (decode)
strategic communication model organization (where it is) -> messages/images-> constituencies -> response (back to org)
primary constituencies people for which a message is intended (strategic communication model)
secondary constituencies people affected by the message (strategic communication model)
rich vs. lean media rich= in person lean= emails
when to use lean media? routine messages
when to use rich media? non-routine messages
communication barriers (5) filtering; info overload; defensiveness; language; culture
classical vs socioeconomic views of social responsibility classical: maximize profits socioeconomic: protect and improve society's welfare
four stages of social responsibility owners/management-> employees -> specific environment -> society as a whole
codes of ethics a formal statement of an organization's primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow
stages of moral development 1) preconventional (rules just to avoid punishment) 2) conventional (doing what's expected) 3) principled (following self-chosen principles)
issue intensity it's only wrong if it is perceived as wrong
factors that determine ethical and unethical behavior stage of dev, individual characteristics, structural variables, organizational culture, issue intensity
how to encourage ethical behavior employee selection, codes of ethics, leadership, appraisals, audits
Hofstede's 5 dimensions for assessing culture individualist/collectivist, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, long versus short term orientation, achievement vs nurturing
GLOBE dimensions for assessing culture
planning defining goals, strategy, and what activities to do so
strategic plans apply to the entire organization; overall goals for an extended period of time
competitive advantage how a business succeeds in its SBUs; quality, sustainability, etc.
five forces model buyers, substitutes, new entrants, suppliers (*intensity of rivalry among competitors)
management by objectives management system based on measurable participatively set commitments for a measurable result w/in a time period
Porter's model of generic competitive strategies (draw it) competitive advantage vs. competitive scope
strategic vs. operational plans strategic: long period of time; entire organization operational: specified details, short time period
planning cycle goals-> SWOT analysis -> strategies -> implement -> evaluate
environmental scanning large amounts of info; anticipate and interpret environmental changes
forecasting predictions of outcomes
benchmarking search for best practices among competitors (or bad ones) that lead to their good/bad performance
formal versus informal groups formal: for a specific assignment informal: social groups
stages of group development forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
roles & group behavior helps get different things done, but role conflict can occur
norms & group behavior sets expectations, but can lead to antisocial actions
conformity & group behavior people want to be accepted, but groupthink can happen
status systems & group behavior inferred, but sometimes people question authority
group size & group behavior 5-7 people is best (no social loafing)
group cohesiveness & group behavior degree to which members share the same goal
cohesiveness and productivity more cohesive=more productive
conflict management and group behavior conflict is often necessary to get things done
work teams well defined and stable
project teams done when finished with project
problem solving teams same department
management teams they manage
virtual teams different countries; difficult to build trust
cross-functional teams mix of specialists (difficult to find boundary-spanners)
three characteristics for effective teams people; organizational; task
how to build trust communication, support, respect, fairness, predictability, competence
challenges of managing global teams dislike team members, mistrust, communication issues, stereotyping
advantages and disadvantages of group decision making takes longer, but with a more effective result
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physiological, safety, love, esteem, self actualization) can't be used to motivate!
ERG theory existence, relatedness, growth (three needs) focused for work environment
theories X and Y X: negative view of employees Y: positive view of employees
Hertzberg theory dissatisfiers (hygeine)-> external satisfiers (motivators)-> internal *aid in motivators
McClelland Three-Needs Theory nAch, nPow, nAff
goal setting theory the process of improving performance w/ objectives, deadlines, or quality standards (doesn't necessarily work)
job characteristics model (5 factors) skill variety; task identity; task significance; autonomy; feedback
equity theory distributive justice (allocation of rewards); procedural justice (how awards are chosen) *if they fit perception, job satisfaction is higher
expectancy theory assumes motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities of success
high-high leader consideration, initiating structure
managerial grid concern for people; concern for production
Fielder contingency model effective group performance depends on matching the leader's style and amount of control/influence in the situation
LMX theory in-groups and out-groups (in group is very productive)
path-goal theory behavior->environment/contingency factors->outcome
transactional vs transformational leaders transaction: rewards for behavior transformational: inspires followers
charismatic leader personality influences people
visionary leader the ability to create a realistic, credible, attractive vision
5 sources of a leader's power legitimate, coercive, reward, expert, referent
Created by: melaniebeale
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