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Physical Science

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
A pint of water (on Earth) is approximately 1 pound
Historically, which measurement may have been defined as the distance from the royal nose to the thumb of the royal outstretched arm? 1 yard
In a debate, is the statement "It's only a theory" a valid argument point against a theory (as in "The theory of evolution is wrong because it's only a theory")? No, theories are strong.
Which of the following is not considered a major physical science: Biology
The word science comes from the Latin word meaning knowledge
The most information about our environment comes to us through the sense of sight
Our senses may obtain less-than-accurate information concerning our physical world because they can be dcieved
A quantitative observation that is the basis of scientific investigation is a measurement
A scientific law describes a fundamental relationship of nature
A very tentative explanation of observations of some regularity of nature is a hypothesis
A successfully tested hypothesis may take on the status of a theory
A standard unit is used for making accurate measurements
standard unit of time second
Which of the following is not a fundamental quantity wieght
Which fundamental quantity does the average person measure most often every day time
The mass of a cubic meter of water is 1 metric ton
Is a kilometer longer than a mile? no
is a gram a standard metric unit? no
The standard unit of length, the meter, is now defined with reference to the speed of light
The standard unit of time, the second, is now defined with reference to the cesium-133 atom
Is algebra an area of physics no
Motion involves a change inposition
The magnitude of a displacement is ______________ the magnitude of the distance traveled. less than or eual to
displacement divided by time gives velocity
distance covered per unit times is speed
The straight-line distance and direction between two points displacement
The magnitudes of two horizontal displacements are 2 m and 8 m, respectively. Given that the vectors may be in either the plus or the minus direction, they cannot be added together to give a total displacement of 5m
A speedometer indicates ______________ if the automobile is traveling forward. instantaneous speed
If an object moves with constant velocity, speed direction and distance are constant
If the instantaneous velocity of an object is constant, then so is its velocity
The rate at which an object's velocity changes with time is called its acceleration
The rate at which an object's velocity changes with time is called its steering wheel
An acceleration may result from a change in speed direction or both
acceleration is constant during what free-fall
The acceleration is in the direction opposite the motion is deceleration
The distance traveled by an automobile moving at a constant velocity is directly proportional to the time.
An object that is moving in a linear path with an acceleration in the direction opposite to the motion has a(n) ______________ velocity. decreasing
As a block slides down a 30° frictionless incline, its acceleration remains constant
what is the unit for acceleration m/s2
The essentials of the first law of motion were initially developed by Galileo
The natural tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion with a constant velocity is called inertia
A mass is accelerated when ______________ acts upon the mass. an unbalanced force
A mass is accelerated when ______________ acts upon the mass. inertia
Two equal and opposite forces of 3.0 N act on an object. The unbalanced force on the object is 0N
An automobile travels due north with a constant speed of 65 km/h. All forces considered, the unbalanced force acting on the auto is zero
A constant net force acting on an object that is free to move will produce a constant acceleration
The SI base units making up the newton are kg m/s2
When a net force on a moving object increases, the object will exhibit a change in speed and/or direction
Mass and weight on Earth's surface differ in magnitude by a constant.
A spacecraft in space keeps going at the same velocity, even without firing its rockets, in accordance with the _______________ law of motion. first
If a person weighs 186 lb on Earth, that person's weight on the Moon would be 31 lb. (1/6th)
If an object of mass 9 kg has an acceleration of 6 m/s2, what is the unbalanced force acting on it 54N
When you push on a stationary object and it doesn't move, what kind of force is most likely opposing your efforts? Static friction
It is generally easier to push an object once it is moving than when you are getting it started. This is because sliding friction is less than static friction.
On which planet (other than Earth) have air bags been deployed? Mars
An object will ______________ in a fluid if its average density is ______________ the density of the fluid. float; less than
An object will ______________ in a fluid if its average density is ______________ the density of the fluid. sink; greater than
Work is defined as force times distance
A joule/meter (J/m) is a unit of force
Work requires motion
The ______________ distance is used in calculating work parrallel
wirk is a __________ quantity vector
The quantity mv2/2 is known as kinetic energy
The energy of motion is called kinetic energy
An object of mass 2 kg has a speed of 6 m/s and moves a distance of 8 m. What is its kinetic energy in joules? 36
An object has kinetic energy of 98 J. If its speed is 7 m/s, what is its mass? 4
A 8-kg object moves vertically a distance of 3 m. Its potential energy has changed by approximately how much? It has increased by 24 J
When an 8-kg object increases its potential energy by 240 J, approximately how has its position changed? It has risen vertically 3 m.
An 1000-kg car traveling at 30 m/s takes 4 m to stop under full braking. The same car under similar road conditions, traveling at 60 m/s, takes ______________ m to stop under full braking. 16
A student weighing 300 N climbed a flight of stairs 7.0 m high in 6 s. How much work was done by the student? 2100 J
A student weighing 200 N climbs a flight of stairs 7.0 m high in 8 s. What power is required to perform this task? 25 W
The kinetic energy of a pendulum is greatest at the bottom of its swing.
The kinetic energy of a pendulum is least at the top of its swing.
The potential energy of a pendulum is greatest at the top of its swing.
Temperature is a relative measure of latent heat
The Celsius degree is the same size as the kelvin.
Which of the following temperature scales has the smallest unit interval Fahrenheit
In measuring a given temperature, which of the following scales will have the highest reading? Kelvin
One kelvin unit is equivalent to 9/5 Fahrenheit degrees.
The average kinetic energy of the molecules in a gas is a measure of temperature.
A large calorie (Cal) is the amount of heat needed to change the temperature of one ______________ of water by one Celsius degree. gram
The SI unit of heat is the joule
The units of specific heat are J/kg-C°.
The amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of 1 kg of a substance 1°C is specific heat
Heat transfer that involves mass movement is convection
The Sun's rays are transmitted to Earth by means of radiation
The heating of a room by a fire in a fireplace is chiefly due to radiation
The insulation in walls uses which of the following methods to prevent heat transfer? conduction
Heat transfer from hot or cold liquids in a thermos bottle is prevented by convection, cunduction, and radiation
A circular hole is drilled into an aluminum sheet. When the sheet is heated, the diameter of the hole will become larger
Styrofoam or aluminum? Which of the following has the lowest thermal conductivity? styrofoam
How much heat is necessary to change 30 g of ice at –20°C into water at 20°C? 3.3 kcal
How much heat is necessary to change 30 g of water at 10°C into water at 80°C? 2.1 kcal
what characterizes a wave Wavelenght, amplitude, and period
Wave frequency is inversely proportional to period
Wave period is the reciprocal of frequency
Wave velocity is inversely proportional to period
Wave amplitude is related to energy
Wave frequency could be given in 1/s s-1 Hz.
If a wave has a frequency of 1 Hz, it has a period of 1 s
A series of ocean waves, each 24.0 m from crest to crest and moving past an observer at a rate of 6.0 waves per second, has what speed? 144 m/s
If a wave has a frequency of 4 Hz, it has a period of 144 m/s
If a wave has a frequency of 4 Hz, it has a period of 1/4 s.
The major difference between transverse and longitudinal waves is the direction of the particle displacement with respect to the direction of wave motion.
If a piece of ribbon were tied to a stretched string carrying a transverse wave, how would the ribbon be observed to oscillate? Perpendicular to the wave motion
For a transverse mechanical wave, the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of the wave velocity
For a longitudinal mechanical wave, the particle motion is parallel to the direction of the wave velocity.
A disturbance in particle motion parallel to the wave velocity is called a longitudinal wave
A disturbance in particle motion perpendicular to the wave velocity is called a transverse wave
Which of the following radiations has the longest wavelength Infrared
Which of the following radiations has the smallest wavelength? X-rays
Which of the following radiations has the smallest frequency? infrared
Which of the following radiations has the greatest frequency? X-rays
Which of the following electromagnetic radiations has the greatest frequency? ultraviolet
The law of reflection applies to specular, diffuse, and irregular deflection
The angle of incidence of a light wave is measured from a normal to the surface.
A light wave traveling in air strikes a plane mirror surface at an angle of 40° relative to the normal. The wave is reflected at an angle of 40° relative to the normal
A reflected ray of light leaves a plane mirror's surface at an angle of 30° relative to the normal. The angle of incidence was 30° relative to the normal.
The angles of incidence and reflection are measured from a normal to the reflecting surface.
angles of incidence and reflection are measured from a normal to the reflecting surface
A rainbow results from both reflection and refraction.
A ray of light in water strikes an air–water interface at an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle. The ray is totally reflected into the water
When the Sun is on the horizon, it is actually lower than it appears because of refraction
A pencil partially submerged in a glass of water appears broken or offset because of refraction
12. The bending of waves around corners is called diffraction
A flashlight beam is seen because of diffuse reflection
The law of reflection applies to all reflecting surfaces
The bending of light because of a speed change as it moves from one medium to another is called refraction.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a medium is known as the index of refraction
The speed of light in a material is 1.7 × 108 m/s. What is the index of refraction of this material? 1.76
A particular material has an index of refraction of 1.75. What percent of the speed of light in vacuum is the speed of light in the material? 58%
The speed of light in a particular transparent medium is 6/8 the speed of light in a vacuum. What is the index of refraction of the material? 1.3
The index of refraction of transparent materials is greater than 1
Electric charge is measured in units of coulombs
The mathematical form of Coulomb's law is similar to that of the law of gravitation
A system of an electron, a proton, and a neutron has a net charge of zero
A system of an electron and a neutron has a net charge of –1.6 × 10-19 C
A system of a proton and a neutron has a net charge of +1.6 × 10-19 C
A system of a proton and an electron has a net charge of zero
An object that is negatively charged will attract a glass rod stroked with silk.
An object that is positively charged will attract a rubber rod stroked with fur.
An object that is negatively charged will repel a rubber rod stroked with fur
An object that is positively charged will repel a glass rod stroked with silk
The unit for current is the ampere
Ohm's law gives the relationship between current and voltage
In a conductor, what moves? electrons
One ampere × one second is a unit of electric charge
The unit of resistance is called an ohm
For an ohmic conductor, current is inversely proportional to resistance
For an ohmic conductor, current is directly proportional to voltage
The electrical power dissipated by a resistance R is directly proportional to I2
The electrical power dissipated in an appliance depends on voltage, current, and resistance
Created by: 1533407459