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XR 107


the term pathology refers to the study of the disease process
disease is defined as any abnormal changes in the structure and function of the body
a localized area of destructive change in the body tissue is called a lesion
wounds, rashes, and tumors are all examples of lesions
the process of identifying a disease is referred to as a diagnosis
diseases are identified by means of their manifestation
the patient's reported perceptions for the condition are called symptoms
objective manifestations that can be observed by the examiner are called signs
a group of manifestations that, taken together, are typical of a specific condition is referred to as a syndrome
the process of making a diagnosis begins with taking a history
making a record of the patients symptoms and other info about the patient's life and health, past and present, that may be relevant to their office visit is termed history
the next step after taking a patient's history is a physical exam
when referring to a physical exam think of these things BP, temp, pulse, weight, height, smells, body abnormalities, sounds
together the history and physical is called H&P
if the history and physical exam do not provide a definitive diagnosis, the next step is to order additional tests
after a diagnosis has been made, the physician formulates a treatment plan
a prediction of the course of disease prognosis
diseases are classified as either structural or functional. Which is a dz that involves changes to the cells of the body? structural
diseases are classified as either structural or functional. Which is a dz that is characterized by an abnormal change in function, with no structural changes? functional
acute rapid onset
chronic comes and goes, tends to flare up now and then
contagious may be transmitted from one person to another
diseases that are caused by abnormalities in the genetic makeup of the individual and are inherited from a parent hereditary
diseases that are not hereditary are acquired
diseases present at birth are congenital
true or false: congenital dzs are usually hereditary? true
true or false: congenital dzs may be caused by events that occur before birth true
congential conditions that cause abnormal variations in the shape or form of a body part are called anomalies
dzs with an internal cause are called endogenous
dzs with an external cause are called exogenous
vascular insufficiency is defined as lack of adequate blood flow
trauma is defined as physical injury caused by an object
ischemia is defined as lack of adequate supply of blood to an area
deficiency lack of required substances such as vitamins, minerals, or proteins
autoimmune conditions occur when the immune system attacks itself
trauma to the skeletal system may result in fracture, dislocation, or sprain
a bony injury where the tissue of the bone is broken is called fracture
movement of a bone from within it's normal location within a joint is called dislocations
injury to the ligaments tendons and muscles that surround the joint is called sprain
muscle damage from excessive physical effort is called strain
soft tissue trauma can include lacerations, abrasions, contusions
what is the immune systems response to cellular injury? inflammation
swelling caused by vascular congestion is called edema
what causes tissue to waste away and cause impairment or loss of function atrophy
neoplasms include growths, tumors, ulcers
what kind of neoplasm is a single mass of cells that remains in one location benign
neoplasms that tend to invade the surrounding tissue and are capable of metastasis malignant
a crater like sore on the skin or mucous membrane is called ulcer
exogenous dzs caused by microbiologic agents are called infections