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AQA A1Alkene Alcohol

AQA Reactions of Alkenes and Alcohols

QuestionAnswer
what are the reagents and conditions to convert an alkene into (mono)bromoalkane? HBr, room temp+pressure
what are the reagents and conditions to convert an alkene into (di)bromoalkane? Br2, room temp+pressure
explain why you get two products when you add HBr to an Alkene but only one when you add Br2 because the electrophile (H+) will add to one or the other carbon creating 2 possible carbocations
what are the reagents and conditions to convert an alkene into an alkane? H2, high temp 150C+Nickel Catalyst
what are the reagents and conditions to convert an alkene into alcohol? Steam, 300C,60atm,Phosphoric Acid catalyst OR Conc.H2SO4 followed by water)
what are the conditions to convert an alkene into a polymer? low temp,high pressure
when you add HBr to an Alkene, how many products to you get? 2
when you add H2O to an Alkene, how many products to you get? 2
when you add Br2 to an Alkene, how many products to you get? 1
when you add H2 to an Alkene, how many products to you get? 1
How do you answer this question "what is the reagent?" given the equation Draw the structural formulae of reactant and product. What is the difference?
Define electrophile A chemical with an atom that is electron deficient (may have a positive charge); Able to accept a PAIR of electrons; to form a covalent bond
Define addition When two molecules join to form a SINGLE one
(excess) Bromine is added to Buta1,3DiEne. What is the product? 1,2,3,4TETRABromoButANE; Remember ALL/EACH double bond will react with Bromine; Remember the product is saturated, no more double bond so the name will be finishing in ANE
What do you draw when asked "draw the repeating unit" given the monomer STRAIGHTEN the bonds above and below the double bonds;Open the double bond; DO NOT write "n" after the bracket (that is polymerisation)
How do you answer when asked to "explain why compound A has a higher boiling point than B" 1) Identify the IMF in each compound; 2) compare the strength of forces; 3) discuss "energy needed to break FORCES BETWEEN MOLECULES/IMF"
Describe the mechanism for an electrophilic addition? Show bond polarities;Draw the arrow from the middle of the double bond to the delta+;Draw the polarised bond (from middle of the bond) folding onto delta-;Draw the carbocation and the anion AS YOU SEE;Draw curly arrow from lone pair on anion to positive C
What TYPE of reaction is a polymerisation? radical reaction
What type of isomerism is shown in But-2-ene? geometric isomerism
What are the names of the 2 isomers in But-2-ene? E when the two Methyl groups are on opposite side of the double bond; Z when they are on the same side
Why is there no isomerism shown on 2Methyl PropEne? Draw the structural formula. Carbon-1 carries two Hydrogens: SAME group on ONE carbon
Where does geometric isomerism arise from? The double bond is not able to rotate
What is a Carbocation? Carbocation is the species that has a positive Carbon ion
What is the name of the reaction between an Alcohol and concentrated Sulfuric Acid? Dehydration
What is the product of the reaction between an Alcohol and concentrated Sulfuric Acid? Alkene
What is the name of the product between Butan-2ol and concentrated Sulfuric Acid? But-2-ene or But-1-ene [have you remembered the numbering?]
Why do you get 2 products when an Alcohol reacts with concentrated Sulfuric Acid? because the OH is removed and a Hydrogen on the neighbouring carbon EITHER on the left OR on the right
What must you remember when an alcohol is added to concentrated Sulfuric Acid? you will get 2 products and one of these products may show E/Z isomerism
What is the name of the reaction between an Alcohol and a Carboxylic acid, with conc H2SO4 as catalyst? Esterification
What is the product of the reaction between an Alcohol and a Carboxylic acid, with conc H2SO4 as catalyst? Ester
What is the name and structure of the product of the reaction between an Propanol and a Methanoic acid, with conc H2SO4 as catalyst? Propyl Methanoate; HCOO-CH2-CH2-CH3
What is the name of the reaction between an Alcohol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate? Oxidation
What is the product of the reaction between an Alcohol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate? Depends on the type of alcohol: Primary gives Aldehyde, then Carb Acid; secondary gives Ketone
What is the product of the reaction between a primary Alcohol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under reflux? Carboxylic Acid
What is the product of the reaction between a secondary Alcohol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under reflux? Ketone
What is the product of the reaction between a tertiary Alcohol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under reflux? no reaction!
What is the equation for the reaction between Butan-1ol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under distillation? CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH + [O]  CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO + H2O (show as much structure as possible in the equation!) [have you remembered H2O]
What is the equation for the reaction between Butan-2ol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under reflux? CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3 + [O]  CH3-CH2-CO-CH3 + H2O (show as much structure as possible in the equation!) [have you remembered H2O]
What is the equation for the reaction between Butan-1ol and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under reflux? CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH + 2[O]  CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH + H2O (show as much structure as possible in the equation!) [have you remembered H2O] finally there are TWO [O] as the butan1-ol is oxidised first into Butanal then onto the acid
What is the equation for the reaction between Butanal and Acidified Potassium Dichromate under reflux? CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO + [O]  CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH (show as much structure as possible in the equation!)
An IR spectrum shows that the product of oxidation of an alcohol under reflux has a peak at 1750cm-1 but no broad peak at 3000cm-1. What type of alcohol was oxidised. Explain your reasoning. A C=O was present but no O-H so can not be a Carboxylic Acid, so the product was a ketone; so the alcohol was secondary.
How do you write the equation for polymerisation STRAIGHTEN the bonds above and below the double bonds;Open the double bond; draw brackets; write "n" after the bracket AND "n" BEFORE THE REACTANT/ALKENE!!!!
Describe 3 methods of disposing of plastic combustion to generate electricity; SORTING and recycling (mechanical recycling by melting and reshaping OR feedstock recycling to recuperate the Alkene)
What is the problem with recycling (apart from need for sorting first) The melting and reshaping can only be done a given number of times because the polymer chain break and become smaller at each heating
Which carbocation is the most stable: primary, secondary or tertiary? Explain why tertiary, because each Carbon next to the C+ will give a fraction of e- to the C+, hence makes the C+ more stable
What is the test for AlkEnes? Bromine water goes FROM orange TO colourless
Describe the mechanism of EA of conc. H2SO4 onto Ethene show polarised H-O on H2SO4; attack from middle of double bond onto H-delta+ from H2SO4; redraw as you SEE; attack from lone pair of negativeO-SO3H onto C+; draw final product
Created by: UrsulineChem