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375 Final

Information systems

TermDefinition
Information System (IS) Defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect, retrieve, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
Information Systems may help... managers and workers to analyze problems, visualize complex projects, and to create/understand new problems
Understanding Information Systems Requires.. one to understand the problems they are designed to solve, their architecture and design elements and the organizational process.
Management Information System (MIS) the study of information systems, focusing on their use in business and management. MIS combines the theoretical work of computer science, and management science/operations research with a practical orientation towards building systems and applications.
Why Information system (IS)? organizations need IS to survive and prosper
Information Systems Process Input, processing, output and feedback
Information Systems interact with.. Suppliers, organizations, customers, regulatory agencies, stockholders and competitors
Information System (IS) Through comp sci and bus perspective IS are more than computers. Effective use of IS requres an understanding of the organization, management and information technology. From the bus perspective IS is an organizational and management solution, based on information technology, to a challenge
IS supports business functions such as.. Sales and marketing, production and operation, finance and accounting, human resources
IS involves people such as.. Managers, knowledge worker, data workers, service workers.
IS involves management such as Senior managers, middle managers and operational managers
Information Technology Infastructure Computer, hardware, software, storage technology, communication technology
Internet An international network that collects hundreds of thousands of private and public networks
Intranet An internal network based on internet technology and standards
Extranet Private intranet that is accessible to authorized users
Electronic Market A marketplace that is created by computer and communications technologies, linking buyers and sellers
E-Commerce Electronically buying and selling goods and services
E-business Organizational communication, coordination and management using internet technologies
IS impact on organizational design Flattens organization, changes management process, separates work from location, increases organizational flexibility, redefines organizational boundaries
IS positive impacts faster calculations and paperwork performance, help companies learn about customer preferences, provide new efficiencies(ATM), internet allows fast information distribution
IS Negative impacts May eliminate jobs, violation of privacy by organization, system outages cause critical shutdowns, heavy users may experience health problems, internet can be used to distribute illegal copies of software and intellectual properties
Four major levels Information System 1)operational level 2)knowledge level 3) management level 4) strategic level
Operational Level Keep track of and monitor the flow of transactions
Knowledge Level Support knowledge and data workers
Management Level Support middle-level management decision making
Strategic Level Support long-range planning of senior management
Six major types of Information System ESS, MIS, DSS, KWS, OAS, TPS
Transaction Processing System (TPS) Basic business system model. records dialy, routine activities like sales order entry, hotel reservation, and payroll
Office Automaton Systems (OAS) Help data workers(accounting clerks/secretaries). coordinate workers and communicate with customer, supplier and others. Example (Word processing)
Knowledge Worker Systems (KWS) Help knowledge workers (Doctors, engineers and scientists). KWS promote the creation of new knowledge. Ensure that new knowledge is integrated into the organization.
Management Information Systems (MIS) Provide scheduled or summary reports, use data collected by TPS. oriented to internal not external events of organization
Decision Support System (DSS) Like MIS, DSS also supports management level of organization. use external and internal data. Combine data and analytical models. GDSS
Executive Support System (ESS) Serve strategic level of organization. Create a generalised computing and communications enviroment. Use advanced graphic software to create output for executives. use internal and external data.
Organization technical definition A stable, formal, social structure that takes resources from the enviroment and processes them to produce outputs
Organization Technical definition A collection or rights, priveleges, obligations, and responsibilities that are delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution
Entreprenurial Young, small, fast-changing
Machine Bureacracy Large, slow-changing, centralized
Diviosnalized Bureaucracy Combination of machine bureacracies, one centralized headquaters
Professional bureaucracy Knowledge based, weak centralized authority
Adhocracy Large groups of specialists, teams, task forces
Programmers Write software
System Analysts Translate business problems and requirements into information and find solutions
IS Managers Department and team leaders of various specialists
Chief Information Officer Seniour manager of IS department
End users department representative outside of IS for whom applications are developed
IS advantages in organization Fewer middle managers, reduce transaction costs, contrict firms in size, reduce costs of acquiring information, mgrs can oversee mnore employess, reduce mgmt cost, broader distribution of info
Decision making process Intelligence(gather info), design(alternatives), choice(use criteria to evaluate alternatives), implementation(put decision into effect)
Domestic Exporter heavy centralization of corporate activities in home countries
Multinational Global strategy that decentralized some units like production, sales and marketing
Franchiser Product is created, designed in home country but rely heavily on foreign personnel to further production, marketing and HR
Transnational Truly globally managed firms that have no national headquaters
marketplace concentrator concentrates information about products and services from multiple providers
aggregator groups of people come together to gain volume discounts
Content Provider revenue is generated by selling ad space
Portal Provides an initial point of entry to the web
Created by: davidvachon1