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Agile Proj Managemen

Flash Cards for PMI - ACP

TermDefinition
ACP Agile Certified Practitioner
Active Listening Focuses on understanding what is said and provides feedback to confirm understanding
Affinity Estimation Technique to rapidly place user stories into similarly-sized groups.
Agile Manifesto Four statements of the values of Agile philosophy
Agile Modeling A representation of the workflow of a process or system that the team can review before it is implemented in code. Stakeholders should be able to understand it.
Agile Space Work area that encourages collaboration, communication, transparency and visibility
Agile Tooling Software or artifacts that increase the sense of team and encourage participation among members (could be version control SF or video conferencing)
Analysis Developing an understanding of potential solutions by studying the problem and underlying need
Artifact The output of a process or work, typically a document, drawing, model, or code.
Brainstorming Method of gathering ideas from a group - elicit a large number of ideas in a short time.
Burn-Down Chart A chart used to communicate progress during and at the end of an iteration (# of stories completed/remaining) - the backlog is "burning down" or lessening throughout the iteration.
Burn Rate The cost of Agile work - the rate that the team consumes resources; cost per iteration.
Burn-Up Chart Chart that shows completed functionality over time. Progress trends up as stories are completed (value accumulated). Does not show work-in-progress, so it is not an accurate way to predict end of project
Ceremony A regular meeting held during an Agile project, since as iteration planning, daily stand-up, iteration review, and iteration retrospective
Change In Agile, this refers to changing requirements that provide additional value to the customer
Charter Document that formally begins the project - created during initiation and include the project's justification, a summary level budget, major milestones, critical success factors, constraints, assumptions, and authorization to do it.
Chicken Someone in an Agile project who is involved but not committed
Coach XP - role that keeps the team focused on learning and the process (delivering value while learning)
Collaboration Working together toward a common goal.
Collective Code Ownership Environment where the entire team is collectively responsible for 100% of code (all members of team can cross maintain code) - discourages specialization
Collocation Having the entire team physically working in one room
Communication Sharing information - in Agile, needs to be transparent and free-flowing
Command & Control Non-Agile principle where decisions are made by individuals higher up on the organizational chart and handed down to the team
Compliance Meeting a regulation (project justification)
Cone of silence Creating an environment free of distractions and interruptions for the team
Conflict Areas of disagreement - some conflict leads to process improvement
Conflict Resolution Coming to an acceptable agreement when areas of conflict arise
Continuous Integration Regularly checking in each team member's work, building and testing the entire system
Coordination Orchestrating their work together with the goal of higher productivity & teamwork
Cumulative Flow Diagram Single chart that shows feature backlog, work-in-progress, and completed features over time
Customer Actual end-user or representative who will define and prioritize business value
Cycle Time The amount of time needed to complete a feature or user story
Daily Stand Up Brief (15 min) meeting where entire team shares what they accomplished yesterday, what they plan to accomplish today, any impediments, and how to resolve the impediment
Decide As Late As Possible Postpone decisions as long as possible to preserve possibilities and make final choice with as much knowledge as possible
DEEP Attributes of a product backlog - Detailed, Estimatable, Emergent, Prioritized
Disaggregation Breaking down epics or large stories into smaller stories (decomposition)
Documentation Highly valued in traditional projects, less valued in Agile (only needs to be barely sufficient)
Done Term that explicitly defines when work is complete - includes criteria like complies, runs without errors, and passes predefined acceptance and regression tests
DSDM Dynamic Systems Development Model (an Agile framework primarily used outside the US)
EVM Earned Value Management - way of measuring and communicating progress and trends at the current point in the project. In Agile projects, works best at iteration
Emergent Characteristic of backlog items - stories should grow and change over time as other stories are completed
Emotional Intelligence Ability to relate to others and lead
Epic A very large story that will span iterations (must be disaggregated into component user stories before they are useful on a tactical level
Escaped Defects Defects that are reported by the customer after delivery - track to identify opportunities to improve processes
Extreme Persona A team-manufactured persona that is strongly exaggerated in order to elicit requirements that standard persona might miss.
eXtreme Programming A highly disciplined Agile methodology that runs one week iterations and uses paired development
Feature A group of stories that delivers value to the customer
FDD Defining an overall model and list of features to be included in the system prior to starting design work
Fibonacci Sequence Sequence of numbers used in Agile estimating - 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20, 40, 100
Fishbone Diagram A root cause diagram
Five Whys A root cause analysis technique used at Toyota - why asked 5 times, each time looking at a deeper level of the problem
Focus Team discipline to stay on task - maintaining focus is the scrum master or coach's role
Force Field Analysis Technique for analyzing the forces that encourage or resist change (and relative strength)
Functionality Action that system performs to add value to the customer - if the user can't see or experience it, it doesn't count as functionality
Grooming Cleaning up the product backlog by removing items, disaggregating them, or estimating them
Ground Rules Unwritten rules that apply to all team members
High-Bandwidth Communication Face-to-face; includes non-verbal
Ideal Time The amount of time an assignment would take if there were no interruptions or disruptions
Incremental Delivery Functionality should be delivered in small stages.
Information Radiator Artifacts used to communicate project status to the team and stakeholders (help maintain visibility)
Information Refrigerator Information not readily visible or useful to the team
Innovation Games Exercises used to elicit requirements from product owners, users, and stakeholders
Interaction Face-to-face communication; in contrast to processes/tools
IRR Internal Rate of Return - express profit as an earned interest rate. Bigger is better when weighing comparative benefits
INVEST Acronym describing benefits of good user stories (Independent, Negotiable, Valuable, Estimate-able, Small, and Testable)
Iteration work cycle (multiple iterations go into a release) - Scrum uses 2-4 weeks, XP uses 1 week
Iteration Backlog Work needed to be performed in a given iteration (contrast to product backlog)
Iteration Retrospective Scrum "Ceremony" where team discusses completed work and processes to improve
Kaizen Japanese management philosophy of continuous improvement through small incremental releases
Kanban Japanese for signal - used to promote visibility of work-in-progress while limiting it (team member can't take a new task until the previous one is complete)
Kanban Board Chart showing work flow stages - used to see at a glance what work is in progress and where it is
Last Responsible Moment Term reminding us to make decisions as late as possible in order to preserve all options for as long as possible
Lean Methodology An Agile methodology taken from manufacturing - eliminate waste, amplify learning, etc.
Metaphor The practice of using real-world examples for systems and components to describe how a project will be completed to stakeholders
MMF Minimal Marketable Feature - the smallest feature that can deliver value to users
Negotiable Part of INVEST (user stories) - stories are not set in stone and must be challenged and changed as they go from cards to complete code
NPV Net Present Value - a way of determining the time value of money to calculate a project's worth to the business
Osmotic Communication Absorbing communication by sharing an environment
Pair Programming XP practice where developers work together (one driving keyboard and one looking)
Parking Lot Place to store ideas that might distract from the primary goal during a meeting - particularly used in requirements gathering
Persona An imaginary representation of the end user of a system that includes relevant details about usage
Pig Agile - someone who is fully committed and impacted by the outcome (contrast to Chicken)
Plan-Do-Check-Act Work cycle (Deming) - similar to traditional, but in smaller, faster iterations
Planning Game Used in XP to create a release plan by estimating effort required and prioritizing work ("game" in econ sense - decisions and trade-offs made with stakeholders)
Planning Poker Tool to estimate team effort on user stories
PMBOK PMP Body of Knowledge
PMI Project Management Institute
Present Value A way of factoring in the time value of money - similar to net present value
Process tailoring Refining agile processes to fit the project and environment - process should serve project
Product Backlog All known features for a project, regardless of iteration or release
Product Road Map Artifact showing planned product functionality - less detail than a release plan
Programmer XP term for role that writes the code while the other half of the pair observing and advising
Progressive Elaboration Iterative approach where planning occurs in cycles rather than upfront
Project Temporary undertaking to create a product, service, or result
PMP Project Management Professional credential - traditionally waterfall
Prototyping Modeling used to refine requirements
Qualitative Descriptive factors not measured numerically
Quality Conformance to specifications or requirements
Quantitative Factors measured numerically
Refactoring Reorganizing working code to improve functionality and maintenance - should not affect functionality or performance
Relative Sizing Estimating the size of a story in comparison with another story (most difficult to least, without specific points)
Release A group of iteration outcomes designed to be delivered to end users
ROI Return on Investment - percentage showing the return an organization makes by investing in a project
Risk Uncertainty that could affect project
Risk Burn Down Chart showing risk to success associated with each feature vs time - should burn down or lessen as the project goes along
Role Description of how a person functions within an Agile project. Roles have different names in different methods
Root Cause Analysis Technique to look beneath the symptoms of a problem to understan the fundamental problem that caused it
Root Cause Diagram Ishikawa, Fishbone, or Cause/Effect - illustrate how different factors relate to the symptom
Scrum A popular Agile methodology
Scrum of Scrums Meeting with multiple scrum masters from different teams, used to coordinate very large projects
Scrum Master Responsible for helping the team follow Scrum methodology
SDLC System or Software Development Life Cycle - non-Agile approach with long cycles and lots of upfront planning
Self-organizing Team Agile concept for teams that form organically and interact without a lot of management oversight
Servant Leadership Agile concept contrasted with command and control - leaders work with the team and should be willing to do anything they ask the team to do
Silo Isolated work; not Agile
Smells Symptoms of problems affecting Agile teams and projects - i.e., Smell Test
Spike Quick experiment used to help the team answer a specific question and determine path forward
Sprint Iteration in Scrum (usually 1 week to 1 month); should be consistent to measure velocity
Stakeholder Anyone who has an interest in the project outcome
Stakeholder Management The process of keeping stakeholders informed and meeting their needs. Agile believes in engaging stakeholders to harness their expertise and energy
Standardized Test Test constructed so that the same test-taker will perform similarly each time taking the exam; designed on a curve; used to measure knowledge and understanding
Story Card An index card that holds the user story - small format to limit detail
Story Map Group of backlogged stories that are broken down and organized by user functionality; used to prioritize
Story Point Unit of measure expressing the estimated difficulty (effort) of a user story.
Sustainability Pace of work/velocity that can be maintained indefinitely. Agile teams strive to avoid the crunch at the end of a project by keeping up an intense but steady pace
Swarming Collaboration technique where the entire team is focused on a single user story - useful for particularly challenging story but can be used for the entire backlog
Team Empowered group of individuals, collectively responsible for delivering value on the project
Technical Debt Technical decisions that the team chooses not to implement at this time, but will become obstacles if not done.
TDD Test-driven development - Agile practice where the acceptance test for a module is written. The code is built around passing the tests so that it should include the correct performance (Test-first Development)
Tester XP role - assists the customer in defining acceptance tests, then regularly measures the product against the tests and communicates the results
Theme The purpose behind a group of stories, an iteration, or a release. PO or Customer determines, and the team agrees on it (e.g., Reporting)
Timeboxing Constraining a project or release by setting a firm delivery date and them working to get as much value & functionality in
Tracker XP Role - measures the team's progress (against the iteration plan, the release plan, test, etc.) and radiates the info to the team.
Traditional Management In contrast to Agile, top-down approach to heavily planning, longer cycles, and less customer involvement
Transparency Agile value implemented by showing every member's progress to the whole team
User Story One or more business requirements that will add value for the user. Relatively small, always focuses on user
Validation The process of ensuring that the product is acceptable to the customer
Value Worth the project delivers to the business - this is the core value
Value Stream Mapping Lean - Tool for analyzing a chain of processes with the goal of eliminating waste.
Value-based Prioritization A practice of letting the PO or Customer determine which functionality is implemented first based on the value it delivers (may also be applied to project justification)
Velocity The number of features or user stories that a team delivers in a fixed iteration
Verification The process of ensuring that the product conforms to specifications
Virtual Team A geographically distributed group - more difficult for Agile
Visibility The Agile concept that each team member's work and progress should be transparent to all stakeholders
War Room A dedicated space where the entire team can work - helps facilitate communication and a sense of team and avoid silos
Waterfall Traditional approach resistant to change with lots of planning and sequential
Wide-band Delphi Estimating Estimating technique - PO presents user stories & discuss challenges. Estimates for each story are plotted (no names), then the team reaches a consensus on the range of points.
WIP Limits Limiting Work in Progress so that the team maintains focus on completing work, maintaining quality, and delivering value.
Wireframe A lightweight non-functional UI design that shows the Customer the major elements and how they would interact - prior to coding
WIP Work in Progress - stories that have been started, displayed on an information radiator so progress through the workflow is shown
Workflow Series of agreed-upon stages the team follows - to do, coding, done, Dev tested, etc.
Created by: Perthenia