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Ch. 13

Social Psychology

TermDefinition
Social Psychology The study of the causes and consequences of sociality
Aggression Behavior whose purpose is to harm another
Frustration-aggression hypothesis A principle stating that anime aggress only when their goals are thwarted
Cooperation Behavior by tow or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
Group A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
Prejudice A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
Discrimination Positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
Deindividuation A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
Diffusion of Responsibility The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting in the same way
Altruism Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
Kin Selection The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
Reciprocal Altruism Behavior that benefits another with the expectations that those benefits will be returned in the future
Mere Exposure Effect The tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
Passionate Love An experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction
companionate love An experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being
Social Exchange The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
comparison level The cost-benefit ration that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
Equity A state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal
Social influence the ability to control another person's behavior
Norm A customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture
Normative influence A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
Norm of reciprocity The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them
Door-in-the-face Technique A strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior
Conformity The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it
obedience The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do
Attitude An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
Belief an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event
Informational influence A phenomenon that occurs when a person's behavior provides information about what is good or right
Persuasion A phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes of beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
systematic persuasion The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason
Heuristic persuasion The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion
Foot-in-the-door technique A technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request
cognitive dissonance An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
Social Cognition The processes by which people come to understand others
Stereotyping The processes by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categorizes to which others belong
Perceptual confirmation a phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive
self-fulfilling prophecy they tendency for people to cause what they expect to see
subtyping the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
attribution an inference about the cause of a person's behavior
correspondence bias the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation
Actor-observer effect The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others
Created by: jmccloud