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Organization of Buss

Final Exam

Job Design The process by which managers decide how to divide tasks onto specific jobs
Divisional Structure An organizational structure composed of separate business units within which are the functions that work together to produce a specific product for a specific customer
Feedback The extent to which actually doing a job provides a worker with clear and direct information about how well he or she has performed the job.
Functional Structure An organizational structure composed of all the departments that an organization requires to produce its goods or services
Global Geographic Structure An organizational structure in which each region of a country or area of the world is served by a self-contained division
Organizing Structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goal; one of the four principals of management
Task Variety The number of new or unexpected problems or situations that a person or function encounters in performing tasks or jobs
Task Significance The degree to which a worker feels his or her job is meaningful because of its effect on people inside the organization, such as coworkers, or on people outside the organization such as customers
Behavior Control—Management by Objectives A goal-setting process in which a manager and each of his or her subordinates negotiate specific goals and objectives for the subordinate to achieve and then periodically evaluate the extent to which the subordinate is achieving those goals
Benchmarking The process of comparing one company’s performance on specific dimensions with the performance of other high-performing organizations
Bureaucratic Control (system) Control of behavior by means of a comprehensive system of rules and standard operating procedures
Clan Control The control exerted on individuals and groups in an organization by shared values, norms, standards of behavior and expectations
Control Evaluating how well an organization I achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance; one of the group principal tasks or management
Control Systems Formal target-setting, monitoring, evaluation and feedback systems that provide managers with information about how well the organization’s strategy and structure are working
Feedforward Control Control that gives managers information about customers’ reactions to goods and services so that corrective action can be taken if necessary
Organizational Culture The share set of beliefs , expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence the ways in which individuals, groups, and teams interact with one another and cooperate to achieve organizational goals
Top-down change A fast, revolutionary approach to change in which top managers identify what needs to be changed and then move quickly to implement the changes throughout the organization
Bottom-up change A gradual or evolutionary approach to change in which managers at all levels work together to develop a detailed plan for change
Equity Theory A theory or motivation that focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs
Expectancy Theory The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes
Extrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment
Intrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs An arrangement of five basic needs that, according to Maslow, motivate behavior. Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (all levels) Self-actualization needs, Esteem needs, Belongingness needs, Safety needs, Physiological needs.
Self-actualization needs The needs to realize one’s full potential as a human being
Esteem needs The needs to feel good about oneself and ones capabilities to be respected by others, and to receive recognition and appreciation
Belongingness needs Needs for social interaction, friendship, affection, and love
Safety needs Needs for security, stability, and a safe environment
Physiological needs Basic needs for things such as food, water, and shelter that must be met in order for a person to survive
Merit Pay Plan A compensation plan that bases pay on performance
Motivation Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence
Operant Conditioning Theory The theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences
Punishment Administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs
Social Learning Theory A theory that takes into account how earning and motivation are influenced by people’s thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people’s behavior
Charismatic Leader An enthusiastic, self-confident leader who is able to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be
Coercive Power The ability of a manager to punish others
Expert Power Power that is based on the special knowledge, skills, and expertise that a leader possesses
Leader An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals.
Leadership The process by which an individual exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates, and directs their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals
Legitimate Power The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in an organization’s hierarchy
Task-oriented Leader Leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level
Transactional Leadership Leadership that motivates subordinates by rewarding them for high performance and reprimanding them for low performance
Transformational Leadership Leadership that makes subordinates aware of the importance of their jobs and performance to the organization and aware of their own needs for personal growth and that motivates subordinates to work for the good of the organization
Friendship Group An informal group composed of employees who enjoy one another’s company and socialize with one another.
Group Cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to or loyal to their group
Groupthink A pattern of fault and biased decision making that occurs I groups whose members strive for agreement among themselves at the expense of accurately assessing information relevant to a decision
Group Norms Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow
Interest Group An informal group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization
Social Loafing The tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they work in groups than when they work alone
Synergy Performance gains that result when individuals and departments coordinate their actions
Team A group whose members work intensely with one another to achieve a specific common goal or objective
Top-Management Team A group composed of the CEO, the COO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments
Virtual Team A team whose members rarely or never meet face-to-face but, rather, interact by using technology such as e-mail, computer networks, telephone, fax, and videoconferences.
306-Degree Feedback Performance appraisal by peers, subordinates, superiors, and sometimes clients who are in a position to evaluate a managers performance
Collective Bargaining Negotiations between labor unions and managers to resolve conflicts and disputes about issues such as working hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and job security
Development Building the knowledge and skills of organizational members for that they are prepared to take on new responsibilities and challenges
Formal Appraisal An appraisal conducted at a set time during the year and based on performance dimensions and measure that were specified in advance
Job Analysis Identifying the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that make up job and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job
National Labor Relations Act Makes it legal for workers to organize into unions to protect their rights and interests and declare certain unfair or unethical organizational practices to be illegal
Outsource To use outside supplies and manufactures to produce goods and services
Performance Appraisal The evaluation of employees’ job performance and contributions to their organization
Training Teaching organizational members how to perform their current jobs and helping them acquire the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers
Artificial Intelligence System Behavior performance by a machine that, if performed by a human being, would be called “intelligent”
Information Data that are organized in meaningful fashion
Information Distortion Changes in the meaning of a message as the message passes through a series of senders and receivers
Management by Wandering Around A face-to-face communication technique in which a manager walks around a work area and talks informally with employees about issues and concerns
Noise Anything that hampers any stage of the communication process
Date Raw, summarized, and unanalyzed facts
Information Technology The set of methods or techniques for acquiring, organizing, storing, manipulating, and transmitting information
Management Information Systems A specific form of IT that managers utilize to generate the specific, detailed information they need to perform their roes effectively
Communication The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding
Sender The person or group wishing to share information
Created by: beckster3000