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RT 244 Ch 35-38

Radio-biology chapters 35,36,37,38

QuestionAnswer
What is the most common barrier used in shielding? Lead (Pb)
What is the dose quantity that accounts for different types of radiation and the radiosensitivity of various tissue and organs? effective dose
Diagnostic tube housing must be shielded so that radiation leakage may not exceed what? leakage cannot exceed 100mR at 1 meter
Protective gloves worn and the bucky slot cover on a fluoro table must have a Pb equivalent of what? .25mm
Scatter to the RT during fluoro is primarily caused by what? the patient
Regarding an aluminum filter used in the beam of a diagnostic xray machine, what is its purpose? 1.reduce dose to patient 2.makes image better
What is the required total filtration? 2.5mm
How can you reduce gonadal dose? 1.shielding 2.collimation 3.distance
Primary protective barrier must have a lead equivalency of at least what? 2mm of Pb or 4 inches of masonary
Regarding the thickness of a protective barrier, what factors should be considered? distance, occupancy factor, control, workload, use factor, kVp
Fluoro units, what is the minimum source to image receptor distance that can be used with a mobile unit? 30cm
Fluoro units, what is the minimum source to image receptor distance that can be used with a stationary unit? 38cm
What is the minimal thickness of the protective curtain between the fluoro and the operator? curtain must be at least .25mm thick
What are the 2 types of secondary radiation? 1.scatter from the patient 2.leakage from the tube
What are high risk areas for RTs to work in? fluoro and mobile
Exposure time adjusted for constant mAs, should have a constant radiation intensity linearity
What is the max variation for linearity? 10%
How accurate must PBL (positive beam limitation) and collimators be? must be accurate to 2% of the SID
The intensity of the xray beam at the table top of an image intensified fluoro unit does not exceed what? 10 R/min
What is the efficiency of a 1.0mm Pb equivalent apron at 75 kVp? 99%
OSL's use what type of crystals? aluminum oxide
What is a cutie pie? nickname for an ionization chamber-type survey meter
What is the GSD (genetically significant dose) in the US? 20 mrad
Scintillation detectors are used in what modalities? 1.nuclear medicine 2.CT 3.digital imaging systems
What types of crystals do scintillators use? 1.thallium activated sodium iodide 2.thallium activated cesium iodide
After exposure to ionizing radiation, heating allows for the measurement of the intensity of the emitted light via the glow curve for what device? TLD
TLD's use what type of crystal? lithium fluoride
A common type of gas-filled radiation detector used to detect contamination is the? Gieger Muller (counter)
For any given radiographic technique, the output radiation intensity should be constant from one exposure to another reproducibility
How accurate does reproducibility need to be? within 5%
Lithium fluoride provides a nearly ____?____ equivalent dose tissue
What causes film badges to fog when left in your car? heat and humidity
Dosimetry reports must include what? current and cumulative exposure levels
What is the number one reason for retakes? positioning errors
A beam passes thru a barrier of a TVL of 1 and a barrier of 1 HVL, which beam is most reduced? the beam thru the 1 TVL
What is the monthly exposure limits during pregnancy? .5mSv(50mrem)
What is the full term exposure limits during pregnancy? 5mSv(500mrem)
What is the dose limit for skin and extremities? 500mSv/yr(50rem/yr)
What is the does limit for the lens of the eye? 150mSv/yr(15rem/yr)
What is the general population exposed to every year? 100mrem/yr
What is a radiographer annual dose limit? 5000mrem/yr
What trimester is associated with possible childhood malignancies? 2nd and 3rd
When does resorption occur? within the first 2 weeks
How do you figure out the max lifetime cumulative exposure for a person? age x 1rem
Protective aprons must have a Pb equivalent of ___?____ and ___?___ PB equivalent is recommended. .25mm and .5mm
Patient skin exposure can be measured indirectly by using a what? nomogram
Acute skin effects from radiation exposure have been reported following what type of exams? angiointerventional
An estimation of patient dose is reported as? entrance skin exposure, bone marrow dose, gonadal dose
Bone marrow dose is measured as what? as an estimate from ESE
The simplest way to measure patient dose is to measure the? entrance skin exposure
The period of major organogenesis is during what time frame of pregnancy? 2nd to 10th week
At the level of the tabletop, the intensity of the fluoro beam should not exceed ___?___ for each mA of operation at 80 kVp. 2.1 R/min
How is exposure measured? exposure rate x exposure time
The fluoro exposure control switch is always what type? deadman
Who was Thomas Edison's assistant that died from radiation exposure? Clarence Dally
1 TVL(tenth value layer) = ? HVL(half value layer) 3.3 HVL
What are the 3 types of possible malicious radiologic devices? 1.Radiation exposure device (RED) 2.Radiologic dispersal device (RDD) 3.Improvised nuclear device (IND)
On a mobile xray machine how long is the cord on the exposure switch? atleast 2m/6ft/183cm
Created by: Chrslarsen