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Eval Test 4

all spine, ribs, pelvis, sacrum/coccyx, sternum, SC joints, SI joints,

QuestionAnswer
What is the CR placement for an AP pelvis? midway between level of ASIS & symphysis pubis (2" inferior to ASIS)
Which structures on the AP pelvis should be demonstrated medially? lesser trochanters
Why is a RAO better than a LAO on a sternum? RAO projects the sternum into the heart's shadow ensuring a more homogenous density.
How is the patient positioned on a lateral sternum? erect with the arms drawn back with chest puffed out forward.
What is the centering for PA SC joints? perpendicular to T2/T3; 3" distal to vertebra prominence.
When are SC joints sometimes ordered? when a medial clavicle fracture is suspected.
On oblique SC joints which side is visualized? side down; side closest to the IR.
What is the tube angulation on AP sacrum? 15 degrees cephalic
What is the CR placement for AP sacrum? 2" below ASIS; midsagittal
T/F: On an AP sacrum the pubic bone should overlap the sacrum. False; should NOT overlap/superimpose
What is the CR placement for AP coccyx? 10 degrees caudal; 2" inferior to ASIS @ midsagittal
What is the tube angulation for females on AP SI joints? 35 degrees cephalic
What does SI stand for? sacroiliac
How much obliquity is for the SC joints? 25-30 degrees
What side is visualized and should be marked on SI joints? the upside; side furthest away from the IR.
What is the centering for just AP sacrum? 3-4" posterior to ASIS; level of ASIS
Which obliques are used for posterior rib pain? posterior obliques (RPO or LPO)
What is the centering for above the diaphragm ribs? T7; midway between the outer margin & MSP.
Which ribs should be included on the above the diaphragm? 1-9
AP c-spine: lift chin till line from________ & __________ are perpendicular to the IR. occlusal plane & base of skull
Which vertebra are seen on the AP axial c-spine? C3-T1
Which projection of the cervical spine demonstrates the zygapophyseal joints? lateral
Hyperflexion c-spine opens up what? spinous processes
Why does someone expirate on an AP T-spine? to decrease air volume in the thorax; more uniform density
How do you check for rotation with AP T-spine? *spinous processes in midline *SC joints should be equal distance from the spine
Which position of the T-spine demonstrates the zygapophyseal joints? 70 degree obliques; visualize the upside
On a RPO T-spine oblique which zygapophyseal joint is of interest? left (upside)
AP lumbar what is the CR? *clinicals: 2" above the crest *texts: level of crest (L4-L5)
How is rotation detected on an AP lumbar? *spinous processes *sacrum & coccyx
What is used to detect rotation on an oblique lumbar? the pedicle (eye)
What happens when the spine is not parallel to the table on AP and laterals? disk spaces will be closed
If a pelvis is rotated LPO which obturator foramen is more open? right(the upside)
If a pelvis is rotated RPO which iliiac wing will be foreshortened? left
If a pelvis is rotated RPO which obturator foramen is more closed? right
If a pelvis is rotated LPO; the sacrum/coccyx will be off in which direction? right (moves in the upside direction)
What is the respiration for a RAO sternum? breathing technique
RAO sternum: how much do you oblique a hypersthenic patient? 15 degrees
RAO sternum: how much do you oblique an asthenic patient? 20 degrees
T/F: RAO sternum: the sternum should be free of superimposition of the heart shadow. false; should be in the heart shadow and free of superimposition of the spine
What is the respiration of a lateral sternum? inspiration
How do you check for rotation on a lateral sternum? heart shadow also if it looks like the ribs wrap around instead of come up to meet at the lateral sternum.
How much obliquity is used for oblique SC joints? 15
What is the joint between the body & manubrium of the sternum? sternal angle
If a RAO SC joints is done, what joint is visualized? right
If a LAO SC joints is done, what joint is visualized? left
Are SC joints done AP or PA? PA
For oblique SC joints, where should the joint of interest be to the spine? directly in front of the spine
A pelvis is rotated RPO, which ischial spine is foreshortened? left
A pelvis is rotated RPO, which obturator foramen is more open? left
A pelvis is rotated LPO, which iliac wing is more in profile? left
How can you tell if AP (below the diaphragm) lower ribs are done on inspiration instead of expiration? if there are 9 ribs above the diaphragm = inspiration
How much patient obliquity is for oblique ribs? 45 degrees
When positioning for AP upper oblique ribs and what to demonstrate the right ribs, where do you center? T7; between outer margin and spine
When positioning for AP upper oblique ribs doing an LPO and want to demonstrate the right ribs where do you center? T7; between the outer margin and the sternum on the right side.
On oblique ribs, which portion should be demonstrated free of superimposition? axillary
Some protocols order a PA & lateral CXR with ribs series, why might they order that? to rule out possible pneumothorax or other pathology
If anterior oblique ribs are done, which side is in profile? side up; affected side should be away from the bucky. RAO = left side in profile
What is the centering for AP below diaphragm ribs? T7; midway between outer margin & MSP; also midway between lower margin of ribs & xiphoid tip
What level of vertebra is the xiphoid tip at? T10
What does it mean if the sacrum overlaps the pubis? too much tube angulation
Why would the sacrum become foreshortened? not enough tube angulation
What is the centering when including both the lateral sacrum and coccyx? 3-4" posterior to ASIS; 1" distal to ASIS
On the lateral sacrum/coccyx, what anatomy is included? lateral view of sacrum, L5-S1 joint & coccyx
How is rotation detected on the lateral sacrum and coccyx? *femur overlap (acetabulum & femoral heads) *posterior margins of ischium (greater sciatic notches)
For oblique SI joints, what is the patients obliquity? 25-30 degrees
What is the centering for the oblique SI joint? perpendicular to the ASIS; 1" medial to upside ASIS.
What is the centering for males AP SI joints? 30 degrees cephalic & 2" below level of ASIS.
What is the patient's obliquity for RAO & LAO SC joints? 15 degrees
For AP T-spine, which vertebral bodies should be included? C7-L1
What happens on an AP T-spine if the patient is supine and the knee are not bent? the intervertebral disk spaces are normally closed.
What is the respiration for lateral T-spine? breathing technique recommended or expiration
What is the centering for AP axial C-spine? 15 degrees to C4 (lower margin of thyroid cartilage)
What vertebral bodies should be included on a lateral T-spine? T4-L1
What is recommended to be placed behind the patient for a lateral T-spine? lead blocker
Which projection of the T-spine demonstrates the intervertebral foramina? lateral
About how much tube angulation is used on a swimmer's view? 3-5 degrees caudal to separate the shoulders
T/F: On a swimmer's, it is recommended to angle the tube. false; its optional
What vertebral bodies are demonstrated on the swimmer's view? C4-T3
What needs to be fixed if on an oblique c-spine the intervertebral disk spaces are closed? angle the tube more
What is the positioning for an AP Open Mouth? adjust head so line from lower margin of the base of skull to the upper incisors is perpendicular to the IR.
How is rotation detected on an AP axial c-spine? *mandibular angles @ equal distance *spinous processes in midline *transverse processes symmetrical *air-filled trachea
What anatomy should be included in the AP open mouth? dens (odontoid process), vertebral body of C2, lateral mass of C1, zygapophyseal joints
On AP lumbar, if the spinous processes roll to the left what is the rotation? RPO
On AP lumbar, if the spinous processes roll to the right what is the rotation? LPO
If the coccyx is rolled to the left on an AP lumbar what is the rotation? RPO
What is the centering for the oblique lumbar? 2" medial to the upside ASIS & *texts: level @ crest (L4 & L5) *clinicals: 2" above crest
What is the patient's obliquity for oblique lumbar? 45 degrees
What is visualized on the oblique lumbar views? "scotty" dogs
What part of the scotty dog is formed from the pedicle? eye
What part of the scotty dog is formed from the transverse process? nose
What part of the lumbar vertebral body form the scotty dog's neck? lamina OR pars interarticularis
How is over and under rotation detected on oblique lumbar views? the location of the pedicle "eye"
Where is the pedicle if the oblique lumbar is under rotated? "eye" (pedicle) is too anterior to the mid-vertebral body
Where is the pedicle if the oblique lumbar is over rotated? "eye" (pedicle) is too posterior from the middle of the vertebral body.
Which projection of the lumbar spine demonstrates the zygapophyseal joints? 45 degree oblique (demonstrates the downside joint)
For an RPO oblique lumbar which zygapophyseal joint is demonstrated? right
Which projection of the lumbar spine demonstrates the interverbral foramina? lateral
What is the centering for L5-S1 lateral? 1 1/2" inferior to iliac crests & 2" posterior to ASIS.
How do you know whether to angle on the lateral L5-S1? CR should be parallel to the inter-iliac plane.
On the lateral lumbar, if the iliac crests are superimposed and the L5-S1 joint space is open should you still angle for the spot 5-8 degrees caudad? no
Which projection of the cervical spine demonstrates the intervertebral foramina? 45 degree obliques; demonstrates the upside
For an LPO of the c-spine, which intervertebral foramina are being demonstrated? the right side
For cervical hyperextension what anatomy opens up? anterior vertebral disk spaces
If the pedicles and intervertebral foramina are seen on an oblique c-spine, what does that indicate? correct patient obliquity
If the superior intervertebral disk spaces are closed compared to the inferior disk spaces, what does this indicate? the patient's head is leaning on the IR. sometimes shown on the mandible also (tilting)
On oblique ribs, if there is not twice as much distance between the spine and the outer border of the affected side as compared to the unaffected side what does this mean? the patients obliquity is too shallow
AP sacrum: If the sacrum is superimposed by the pubic bone, what does that mean about the tube angulation? too much tube angulation
Created by: mokapis