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Chapter 1 - Geog

The Restless Earth

The Earth's 3 layers are: 1. Crust 2. Mantle 3. Core
Molten Rock is Warm melted rocks
The Earth's crust is broken up into Plates, which carry the continents and oceans
Continental Drift is the movement of the Earth's plates
Plate Boundaries are the places where plates meet
At plate boundaries plates do 3 things: 1. Collide (Crash together) 2. Separate (Pull apart) 3. Slide past eachother (Jump past eachother)
When plate collide (Crash together) Fold Mountains form.
Fold Mountains form when 1. When 2 plates crash together 2. Both plates are pushed up and form a fold.
When plates separate (pull apart) Volcanoes form.
Volcanoes form when 1. Two plates separate 2. Earths surface cracks and magma comes up and lava comes out of the crack and ooze out onto the earth's surface. 3. The lava cools and hardens and over a long time builds up and up to form a volcano.
Magma is molten rock, found under the earth's surface.
Lava is What we call magma when it reaches the earths surface.
The main parts of a volcano are 1. Crater 2. Vent 3. Magma chamber 4. Layers of ash and lava
The 3 types of Volcano are: 1. Active (alive) 2. Dormant (Sleeping) 3. Extinct (Dead)
Volcanic activity forms 1. Volcanic mountains 2. Mid-ocean ridges 3. Volcanic Islands
Advantages of Volcanoes 1. Hot Springs (Used for hot water/electricity) 2. Tourist attractions
Disadvantages of Volcanoes 1. Kill people 2. Damage property
When plates slide past eachother (jump past eachother) Earthquakes happen
Earthquakes happen when 1. Two plates slide past eachother, point where this happens inside the earth is the focus 2. The point above this on the earth's surface is the Epicenter 3.Tremors(Shock waves) move out from the focus like waves of vibration and cause damage.
Focus is The place inside the earth where and Earthquake starts
Epicenter is Point above the focus on the earth's surface where the most damage is done.
Tremors (Shock waves) are Waves of vibration which spread out from the focus causing damage
Most damage is done close to the epicenter and less is done the further you move away from the epicenter.
Earthquakes are measured by Seismographs
Earthquakes are measured on The Richter Scale
Aftershocks are Smaller tremors which occur hours or days after the original earthquake
Disadvantages of Earthquakes 1. Kill People 2. Destroy buildings 3. Damage to gas pipes can cause frs
Ways to limit damage of an earthquake 1. Make earthquake proof buildings which are build to sway(rock) when earthquakes happen. 2. Build buildings on stable ground
Most of the worlds Earthquakes and Volcanoes happen in The Pacific Ring of Fire
Created by: toastiee1



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