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Pharmacology

ENDOCRINE Antidiabetic Agents

QuestionAnswer
Oral antidiabetics initial treatment for type ___ diabetes type 2
Weight loss is a treatment to treat type ___ diabetes type 2 diabetes
What lifestyle changes can help treat type ___ diabetes Stop smoking No alcohol ( or decrease intake) REgular exervise ( increases insulin sensitivity)
If normal ____ levels not achieved after 3 months oral anti diabetic agents are prescribed blood glucose
Oral Antihyperglycemia Agents for Types 2 diabetest 1. Sulfonylurea 2. Biguanide 3. A Glucosidease inhibitor 4. Thiazolidinedione 5. meglitinide 6. Incretin enhancer
What are the available agents for oral antihypeglycemic? 1. Glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide & 1st gen. Sulf. 2. Metformin 3. Acarbos 4. Pioglitazone, rosiglitazone 5. Repaglinide, nateglinide 6. sitagliptin
Oral hypoglycemic agents are Sulfonylutea agents
Sulfonylurea agents are A groups of oral antidoEtic agents that are able to stimulate insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas
Sulfonlurea agents also enhance the actions of ___ in muscle, liver, and ____ tissues. This allows these tissues to take up and store glucose. Insulin; adipose tissue
What are examples of sulfonlyrea agents? 1. Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) 2. Flyby ride (Diabeta, Micronase, Blynase PresTab)
All is the oral hypoglycemic agents are highly bound to ____ proteins. This accounts for their differences in duration of action. Plasma proteins
All of the sulfonylureas are metabolized inThe ____ Liver
What are the side effects of sulfonylurea agents? Hypoglycemia Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia Cholestatic jaundice Nausea and heartburn Alcohol ingestion may result in Antabuse-like reaction
Metformin(Glucophage) is a ____ agent Biguianide
Metfoemin glucophae decreases glucose production by ____ Liver
Metfoon decreases intestinal absorption of ___ Glucose
Metformin improves insulin _____ Sensitivity
Metformin does not cause _____ gain Weight
Metformin may decrease _____ and LDL cholesterol Triglycerides
Metformin does not cause ____ hypoglycemia
Metformin requires some ___ insulin to work pancreatic
Metforminag be used alone or with other ___ medications Anti diabetic
What are the side/ adverse effects metaformin? Promarily it affects the GI tract (epigasyric discomfort, bloating nausea diarrhea, gas) Metallic taste in mouth Weight loss Lactic acidosis is rare but is lethal in 50% cases Patients with renal problems and
Excessive alcohol intake most susceptible to developing _____ lactic acidosis
Alpha glycosidase inhibitors are ? Acarbose (precise) Miglitol (Glyset) Block enzyme alpha glycosidase in gut and delays glucose absorption Lowers postprandial hyperglycemia Does not cause hypoglycemia Must be taken with meals has to be there carbohydrate is there
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors Blocks enzyme alpha glucoaidase in gut and delays glucose absorption Lowers postprandial hyperglycemia Does not cause hypoglycemia Must be taken with meals( has to be there when carbohydrate is there)
Side effects of alpha glycosidaze inhibitors are: If patient is also taking a sulfonylurea or insulin hypoglycemia may be enhanced If hypoglycemia occurs, do not use sucrose to raise blood glucose- use oral dextrose (Glutose)
2 Example of Thiazolidinediones (glitazones) are: Pioglitazone(Actos) and Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
Thiazolofinediones increases sensitivity of muscle and far tissue to insulin (insulin has more effect on ___) cells
Thiazolidinesiones depends on presence of ____ to work Insulin
Thiazokidinediones Enhances glucose uptake and ___ in ___ Storage in liver
Thiazolidinediones does not ___ release of ___ Stimulate release ; insulin
Thiazolidinediones may be used in type ___ diabetes in addition to insulin Type 1
Incretin mimetic, Incretin enhancer Stimulates production of insulin in response to high blood glucose level
Incretin inhibits release of ___ Glucagon
Incretin slows rate of gastric ____ Emptying
Byetta/ exenatide (mimetic) is ____ with meals: Injected
What is an example incretin enhancer? Januvia/sitagliptin
Januvia is an oral ___ enhancer
____ is a Glucose Elevating Drugs Glucagon
Glucagon is a natural hormone secreted by the pancreas and synthetic available in tablet form for a quick response to ____ hypoglycemia
Diazoxide is an __ form which is used for the treatment of hypoglycemia ( the ___ form is used of rthe treatment of hypertensive emergencies) oral; IV
Obtain baseline and periodic assessments of blood glucose levels, blood cell count, and liver function tests. is a nursing implication for ___ Glucose elevating drugs
Assess whether the patient has any allergies is a nursing implication for __ Glucose elevating drugs
Ask the patient if they are taking any medication that would interact with the medication prescribed is a nursing implication for ___ Glucose elevating drugs
Assess the patients knowledge of diabetes care including meal pattern, role of exercise, medication, hypoglycemia, blood glucose or urine testing and skin and foot care is a nursing implication for___ Glucose elevating drugs
Evaluate the patents blood and urinary glucose levels in a nursing implication of _____ Glucose elevating drugs
Evaluate all technical skills that will be performed in the home setting such as use of glucometer and insulin injections is a nursing implication of ____ Glucose elevating drugs
What are the teaching tips for glucose elevating drugs? 1. Patients carry an I.D. card & wear a Medic Alert bracelet or necklace 2. Diabetics should carry a supply of readily available sugar in case of hypoglycemia Patients should 3. Patients should know the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia
What are the teaching tips for glucose elevating drugs? 4. Notify physician if skin is yellow , dark urine, fever, sore throat, weakness or bleeding 5. Blood glucose levels change with illness, stress, N/V or unable to eat; notify physician if these occur
What are the teaching tips for glucose elevating drugs? 6. INform patient that blood glucose level when alcohol is consumed
Created by: jwhite223