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Pharmacology

ENDOCRINE Anti Diabetic Agents

QuestionAnswer
What is the drug class for anti diabetic agents known as? Insulin
Insulin is the major fuel regulating hormone formed in the ___ cells of the ___ of Langerhans beta cells; pancreatic islets
____is secreted into the blood in response to a rise in concentration of blood glucose or amino acids Insulin
Insulin is the primary treatment for Type _____ DM Type 1 DM
The primary therapeutic effects is to maintain normal ___ levels which is _____ Glucose; 60-120 mg/dl
What are the three factor of insulin therapy that are important? 1. Onset 2. Peak 3. Duration
____ is the time required for the medication to have an initial effect or action. Onset
____ is when the agent will have the maximum effect Peak
___ is the length of time that the agent remains active in the body Duration
Replace endogenous (produced within) insulin deficiency Increase glucose transport across muscle and fat cell membranes are ___ of _____ Actions of Insulin
Promote conversion of glucose to glycogen Trigger amino acid uptake and conversion to protein in muscle cells Inhibit protein breakdown are ___ of _____ Actions of Insulin
What are the therapeutic uses of Insulin? Replace endogenous (produced within) insulin deficiency Increase glucose transport across muscle and fat cell membranes Promote conversion of glucose to glycogen
What are the last two therapeutic uses of Insulin? Trigger amino acid uptake and conversion to protein in muscle cells Inhibit protein breakdowd
Hypoglycemia (blood glucose levels below 50 mg/dl) is the most serious adverse effect of insulin therapy Hypoglycemia may result from an insulin overdose & may lead to shock & possible death are side effects of ___. Insulin
Tachycardia, palpitations Headache, lethargy, tremors, weakness Blurred vision, dry mouth, hunger, nausea Cold, clammy skin Rash, excess of fat or decrease of fat at injection site are side effects of ___. Insulin
Epinephrine, diuretics, decongestants, marijuana, dilantin and thyroid preparations increase the blood glucose level (cause hyperglycemia) Acetaminophen, salicylates & alcohol decrease the blood glucose level (cause hypoglycemia) interactions are for __ Insulin
Acetaminophen, salicylates and alcohol ____the blood glucose level causing ____. decrease ; hypoglycemia
Insulin is ____ acting Rapid acting
Rapid acting insulin has a ___ solution Clear
Rapid acting Insulin is given ____, usually within ___ minutes of beginning a meal. subcut; 15 minutes
Rapid acting Insulin is contraindicated in patients with episodes of ____ hypoglycemia
Lispro (hymalog), Aspart ( Novolo) are _____ insulin Rapid acting Inuslin
The follow are for what two drugs? Contraindicated in patients with episodes of hypoglycemia Lispro (Humalog), Aspart (Novolog) onset: 5 to 15 minutes peak: 0.5 to 2 hrs duration: 4 to 6 hrs Lispro (hymalog), Aspart ( Novolo)
Acetaminophen, salicylates and alcohol decrease the blood glucose level (cause _____) hypoglycemia
____ insulin is the only insulin that can be given as continuous intravenous (I.V.) solution (Short acting)
___ acting insulin is used in medical emergencies Short acting
___ acting insulin have sources from pork and human. Short acting
What are three types of short acting insulin? Humulin R, Novolin R, Regular Iletin II
The following are for ____ insulin. onset: 0.5 to 1 hr peak: 2 to 4 hrs duration: about 8 hrs Short acting
When regular insulin is administered _____breakfast, hypoglycemia is expected____lunch before ;before
______acting inulin is given _____ usually ___ minutes ___ breakfast and has a ____ solution. Intermediate ; subcut; 30 minutes; before; cloudy
Human NPH, Lente Onset: 1 to 2 hrs Peak: 4 to 8 hrs Duration: 10-18 hrs are a ___ acting insulin. Intermediate acting Insulin
Intermediate acting insulin is ____ combined with _____ insulin often; regular
___ acting insulin is ___ used; most frequently combined with ___ acting insulin to provide control through the day and night and has a ___solution Long acting; rapid acting insulin; cloudy
Humulin U Ultralente is a ____ acting insulin. Long acting insulin
Insulin Glargine (Lantus) is a ___ acting insulin. Long acting
Glargine (Lantus) has a __ duration of action; __ to __ hours long duration; 12 to 24 hours
Glargine ( Lantus) ____ peak Does not
Glargine ( Lantus) is given only at ____ bedtime
Glargine (Lantus) is ___ mixed with ____ insulin product not mixed; any other
Glargine (Lantus) has a usually ____ solution clear
Patients may take a rapid-acting insulin for increased glucose levels that occur after meals( postprandial) and an intermediate or long-acting insulin for in between meals when the glucose levels are less this is known as a ___ combination Fixed combination
In U.S.A., premixed syringes ___, ____, and ____) are available (50/50, 70/30, and 75/25)
Subcutaneous regular (either short acting or rapid acting) insulin doses are adjusted according to blood glucose test results is known as ___ scale insulin. Sliding scale insulin
Blood glucose levelved checked ___ or ___ hours or at specific times Q4 or Q6
subcut administered regular insulin is then ordered in an amount that ___ with the ___ in blood glucose increases;increase
Before starting a standardized regimen of____, diet & physical exercise level must be stabilized insulin therapy
____insulin ___be given ___ All ; May ; subcutaneously
____ acting insulin is often used to initiate therapy Intermediate
Daily dose may be split into 2 doses: 2/3 given in morning ___ breakfast 1/3 given _____before supper in evening before; 30 minutes
The vial should be gently rolled in the palms of the hands – not ___ shaken
When you store you must store insulin in ____ until opened, then kept at ____ if used within a ___ refrigerator; room temperature; month
___ use insulin that is ___ or ___ its ___ date Never;discolored; past; expiration
Regular & NPH pre-filled mixture may be stored for ____months Self-mixed stored up to ____ in refrigerator 2 to 3 ;30 days
Regular & lente combination should be used ____ after mixing immediately
Confirm blood glucose level was acceptable for the individual patient Confirm that the patient has had a level of activity reasonable for the individual patient are pre medication assessment
Make sure that the patient is eating & no changes in diet are anticipated Check the order 3 times before administering the medication are pre medication assessment
Always have another licensed nurse check the injection you prepare to be sure it is in accordance with the physician’s order are pre medication assessment
When ____types of insulin are mixed in the same syringe, the regular (____) insulin is always withdrawn first All insulin may be given subcutaneously; regular insulin is the only insulin used I.V. two ; clear
____insulin is the only insulin used for a ____scale Regular ; sliding
In the U.S., insulin is dispensed as ____ (1 ml = 100 units of insulin) U 100
Insulin syringes are calibrated in ___units 100
Always use an insulin syringe to administer the ____ injection
Created by: jwhite223