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Pharmacology

CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL SYSTEMS Fluid and Electrolytes,

QuestionAnswer
About ____ of adult body is fluid (TBW) 60%
What fluid types make up 60% of an adults body fluid? Intracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, and plasma volume
What are the Fluid location terminology by reference point for cells, blood vessels, and tissues Cells: ICF, ECF
Blood vessels: intravascular
Tissues: Interstitial
Dehydration leads to disturbance in balance between amount of ___in ____compartment & ____ compartment
 fluid;extracellular and intracellular
What are the three types of dehydration? Hypertonic Hypotonic: Isotonic:
Hypertonic definiton is…. fluid moves out of cells, dehydrating the cells (eg., fever with perspiration)
Hypotonic definition is... fluid moves into cells (loss of salt > loss of water)
Isotonic definition decrease in volume of ECF (loss of Na & water from body, eg., diarrhea & vomiting)

Crystalloids are fluids given by ____injection I.V.
Crystalloids supply____ & _____to maintain the osmotic gradient between the extravascular and intravascular compartments
 water and sodium
What are four types of crystalloids? Normal Saline Lactated Ringer’s D5W Plasma-Lyte
Normal Saline Lactated Ringer’s D5W Plasma-Lyte May be: Isotonic (0.9% normal saline) Hypotonic (0.45% NS) Hypertonic (10% D5W) Electrolytes (LR, PL)
An isotonic solution is one in which normal body cells can be placed without causing either ____ or ____ of cells shrinkage or swelling
A ____solution will cause cells to shrink hypertonic
Colloids are large protein particles that ______out of the blood vessels cannot leak
Higher concentration of colloid solutes inside blood vessels than outside the blood vessels; fluid moves ____this hypertonic area in an attempt to make it ____ toward ; isotonic
Administer ___ by _____ slowly & cautiously to prevent fluid overload and heart failure
 colloids; I.V.,
____ is administered at room temperature
 Albumin
____ products are the only class of fluids capable of carrying oxygen Blood
Blood products are given ONLY with _____ 0.9% Normal Saline 0.9%
___ will cause ______ in transfusions D5W; hemolysis of RBCs
_____ products are always checked by _____ nurses before administering Blood; two
Electrolytes; Potassium (K+):____ to ____ mEq/L 3.5 to 5.0
____ is Essential for maintenance of acid-base balance, isotonicity, & the electrodynamic characteristics of the cell Potassium (K+)
Fruit and juices, fish, vegetables, poultry, meats, and dairy products will provide Potassium (K+)
What is Hypokalemia? lethargy, mental confusion, muscle weakness, nausea (Tx: Potassium Supplements)
What is Hyperkalemia? red flushed skin, dry mucus membranes, thirst, decreased urination, cardiac rhythm irregularities (Tx: Kayexalate)
NEVER give undiluted ____ – because it can result in ventricular fibrillation & cardiac arrest potassium chloride
NEVER give potassium ____ or ____ IV push; IV bolus
What is the usual dose of potassium? Usual dose is 40 mEq K+/1000 mL fluid at a rate not to exceed 20 mEq/hour
What is the amount for Sodium ( Na+) Sodium (Na+): 135-145 mEq/L
_____ Performs many physiologic roles necessary for the normal function of the body, principally involved in control of water distribution, fluid & electrolyte balance, & osmotic pressure of body fluids
 Sodium (Na+): 135-145 mEq/L
Salt, fish, meats, and other foods flavored, seasoned, or preserved with sal provide _____. Sodium (Na+)
What are signs of Hyponatremia:? lethargy, hypotension, stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea & seizures
What are signs of Hypernatremia? edema, thirst, tachycardia, weakness, convulsions, coma
Created by: jwhite223
 

 



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