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Respiratory

Management

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of the respiratory system Facilitate the uptake of oxygen,elimination of carbon dioxide and maintain pH of blood.
What is the specific function of the upper respiratory tract Warm, humidify, cleanse inspired air
Dyspnea Difficult or labored breathing - short of breath.
Platypnea Difficulty breathing unless lying flat
Orthopnea Difficulty breathing unless individual is sitting or standing. Upright position to breath
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Sudden shortness of breath occurring several hours after individual lies down(heart is unable to pump circulatory volume i.e. caused by edematous tissue).
Cheyne-stokes breathing Slow, shallow breathing, which rapidly increases in depth and rate. Crescendo-decrescendo pattern is followed by apnea.
Biot respirations Symptomatic of elevated intracranial pressure and meningitis. Breathing pattern characterized by short bursts of uniform, deep respirations, followed by periods of apnea lasting 10 to 30 seconds.
OLD CART Onset, location, duration, character, associated manifestations, relieving factors, treatment.
ONSET when the problem started
Location where pain is situated, shortness of breath, or other symptoms
Duration Time: length of pain, shortness of breath, or other symptoms
Character Character, quantity and quality of pain, shortness of breath or other symptoms
Associated manifestations the setting in which the pain, shortness of breath, or other symptoms.
Treatment any medication or other remedies that relieve or exacerbate shortness of breath.
What are four techniques used in respiratory assessment Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation.
Inspection observe for use of accessory muscles in back, neck and abdomen. Use of these muscles implies increased work of breathing or diaphragm weakness.
Palpation Examiner uses hands to feel for body movement, lumps, masses, and skin characteristics. Palpation can be light or deep.
Percussion Examiner places finger firmly against a body part and strikes that finger with a fingertip from the other hand. Resulting sounds can suggest normal/abnormal sounds.
What are the characteristics of percussion Flat, dull, resonant, hyper-resonant,tympanic.
Auscultation Involves listening to the body sounds with a stethoscope place on bare skin.
What are the two main components of the stethoscope the diaphragm and the bell.
Name the tissue found in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, orophyarynx and laryngopharynx. Stratified squamous epithelium
What tissue lines the posterior two-thirds of the nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree. Pseudosratified columnar ciliated epithelium
What cells are found in the bronchioles Simple cuboidal epithelium
What cells are found in the alveoli and pulmoary capillaries that surround the alveoli Simple squamous epithelium
The upper airway consists of the... Nose, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx.
Name the lymphatic tissue of the oropharynx/nasopharynx Palatine tonsil, adenoid, lingual tonsil.
Define and describe nasal flaring Widening of the nostril during respiratory difficulty. Caused by increased airway resistance(asthma). Lungs that are stiffer -pneumonia.
Name the three bony protrusions on the lateral wall of the nasal canal the superior, middle and inferior nasal turbinates
What are the vibrissae The vibrissae function as a filter and are the tracheobronchial tree's first line of defense.
What is the main function of the turbinates. The turbinates seperate inspired gas into several different airstreams increasing the contact area between inspired air and warm, moist surface of the nasal mucosa.
Otitis media Infection of mucous membranes of the pharynx that spreads through the pharyngotympanic tubes-young children have a shorter tube.
what is the average blood volume for a male 5 to 6 litres
what is the average blood volume for a female 4 to 5 litres
composition of whole blood Plasma 55% Formed elements 45%
Plasma is composed of ..... 91% water, 7% Protein(albumin-57%, globulins-38%, fibrinogen4%, prothrombin1%). Other solutes contain (ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, regulatory substances).
what is the function of blood 1: to transport oxygen to the tissue cells/ carbon dioxide to the lungs; 2: transport nutrients/waste products; 3: transport processed molecules(lactic acid to liver to convert to glucose).4:regulatory hormones.5:pH,osmosis. 6:Temp.7:Defence.8:form clots.
Average RBC count male 5.8 million per mm3
Average RBC count female 4.8 million per mm3
What is hematocrit The percentage of RBCs in relation to total blood volume.
average hematocrit for males and females Males - 45% Females 42 % Healthy newborn 45 to 60%
where are red blood cells produces red bone marrow in spongy bone of the cranium, bodies of vertebrae, ribs, sternum, proximal epiphyses of the humerus/femur. Two million per second
life span of RBC 120 days. Destroyed in spleen and liver
what is hemoglobin Major substance of RBC, occupies one-third of the cell's volume/accounts for its red colour. Primary function is to transport 02 to the cell and transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
what is the primary function of WBCs or leukocytes Protect against invading microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins and tumor. Removal of dead cells/debris from body.
Name the different types of WBC's Granulocytes(ben) - basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils. Agranulocytes(LW) - lymphocytes, monocytes.
WBCs Not confined to blood vessels - able to leave through process of diapedesis when needed for immune/inflammatory response - response to chemotaxis. Cells migrate out of blood through to tissue spaces toward damaged cells.
Ameboid movement The WBCs ability to form cytoplasmic extensions that are used to migrate through the tissue spaces toward the damaged cells.
Leukocytosis Overall increase in white cells
Leukopenia Overall decrease in white cells
Differential count of white blood cells Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Neutrophils 65% Lymphocytes 25% Monocytes 6% Eosinophils 3% Basophils 1 %
Neutrophils Polymorphoneuclear leukocytes active phagocytic cells. Contain lysosomes which are digestive enzymes that phagocytize invading bacteria
Eosinophils Numerous in tissue lining respiratory and digestive tracts. Destroy protozoa, parasitic worms and release ant inflammatory substances in antigen-antibody reactions. An elevated eosinophil count is commonly seen in asthmatic patients
Basophils Least numerous. Contain Histamine - inflammatory substance that cause vasodilation and atracts other WBCs to inflamed site. and Heparin - inhibits blood clotting. Basophils increase in number in both allergic and inflammatory reactions.
Agranulocytes - Lymphocytes Second most numerous.Found in lymphoid tissue(nodes) role in immunity. T lymphocytes respond to virus infected cells and tumors. B lymphocytes give rise to plasma cells which produce immunoglobulins - inactivate invading antigens.
Agranulocytes - Monocytes Largest of the WBC. account for 4 to 8% of WBCs. In the tissue they differentiate into highly mobile MACROPHAGE - with a large appetite for bacteria, cell fragments, viral infected cells and dead cells.
Platelets or thrombocytes Smallest of the formed elements. 1:form platelet plugs that seal holes in blood vessels.2: form blood clots-larger tears in vessels. Contain Serotonin - which causes smooth-muscle constriction reducing blood flow.
Plasma Liquid part of blood. 55%total vol. Pale yellow.91% water. 7%(proteins and other solutes)
Created by: billand ben