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Pharm Final

SPC Respiratory Pharm Final

What are the Diuretic Drugs? Lasix, Mannitol, and Diamox
Lasix Diuretic, Fast onset, Loss of Potassium resulting in excretion of hydrogen ions which results in a metabolic ALKALOSIS
Mannitol Osmotic diuretic, slow, gentle, spares electrolytes, tx of head trauma to reduce intracranial pressure
Diamox Diuretic promotes Metabolic ACIDOSIS by the loss of HCO3(BiCarb)
Sedative/Hypnotic/Narcotic drugs Ativan, Diprivan, Narcan, Haldol, Demerol, Dilantin, Compazine, Morphine Sulfate, Versed, Valium
Haldol Tx of Dt's & highly agitated states
Dilantin Prevent seizures, makes pt sleepy
Compazine Tx of nausea
Versed Short acting sedative/hypnotic, used during short-term procedures.
Diprivan Sedative/hypnotic, dose dependent, fast onset, quick recovery, IV drip for continuous sedation.
Ativan Anti-anxiety, pre-op med
Valium Tx of occurring seizure
Morphine Sulfate Narcotic analgesic, reduces drive to breathe by lowering sensitivity to CO2, relaxes smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels which drops preload & may drop BP, reduces work of heart.
Demerol Narcotic analgesic
Narcan Antidote for narcotic & barbiturate overdose.
ASA(Asprin) Non-narcotic analgesic, avoid w/viral symptoms (fever, side aches) may worsen asthma by dropping PGE levels & promoting airway spasms.
COX2 Inhibitors Non-narcotic analgesic, given for pain
Atrovent(Ipratopium Bromide) Anticholinergic, Neb dose is 0.5mg, MDI not for those with soy or peanut allergy.
Spiriva(Tiotropium Bromide) Anticholinergic, DPI, long-lasting anticholinergic 24-36hrs
Anticholinergics Promote bronchodilation in the LARGER airways. Prevent parasympathetic response (bronchoconstriction) by antagonist action of M3 receptor. Avoid mask therapy due to eye problems caused by dilation of pupils.
Combo Meds Advair DPI, DuoNeb, Combivent
Advair DPI Slow onset, mtce med, sympathomimetic w/ steroid
DuoNeb Anticholinergic Atrovent(Ipratropium Bromide) w/ sympathomimetic Albuterol Sulfate, dilates upper & lower airways.
Combivent MDI, anticholinergic ipratropium bromide & sympathomimetic albuterol sulfate, NOT for those with soy/peanut allergies.
Glucocorticoids Stops all inflammation, takes hours for onset. Enhances and promotes Beta response. Problems: promotes metabolic ALKALOSIS, mood swings, fat deposits, hair growth, atrophy of adrenal glands.
Leukotrienes (LT) Inhibitors Reduce/prevent inflammation response associated with asthma.
Anticholinesterase Meds Act by promoting acetylcholine by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase which is the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.
Sympathomimetic Side-Effects B1(cardiac): ^HR & contraction strength, B2(lungs): Tremors/Nausea
Sympathomimetics Adrenergic bronchodilators that stim B2 receptor & promote dilation in smaller airways, inhibit prod of inflammatory mediators.
Racemic Epinephrine Fast catecholamine, A1, B1 & 2 agonist. Dose 0.5ml, for tx of upper airway edema.
Albuterol Sulfate (Ventolin, Proventil) 5mg/ml - onset up to 15 min.
Xopenex Racemic albuterol, pure R isomer, 2 strengths, lower B1 activity which means lower incidence of tachycardia & less B2 effects which means a lower occurrence of tremors.
Brovana (arformoterol) Long lasting 12hr sympathomimetic
Foradil(formoterol) DPI, long-lasting sympathomimetic, 12hrs.
Mucomyst(n-acetylcysteine) Mucolytic, disrupts mucus viscosity & elasticity, airway irritant, re-eval every 3-5 days, toss after 96hrs of opening.
Pulmozyme(Dornase Alpha) Proteolytic, tx of infectious mucus(pneumonia), noted by purulent secretions, refrigerate after opening, toss if cloudy or discolored, HCW should avoid breathing this med, often used with CF pts.
Methylxanthines Inhibits bronchoconstriction, reduces PVR/dilates pulmonary blood vessels, enhances diaphragm contraction & endurance. Side-effects: improvement of resp drive, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, twitching, tremors, seizure.
Lidocaine Used during bronchoscopy to prevent spasm, tx PVC(cardia arrythmia), admin as an IV drip.
Dobutrex +INO, improves stroke volume by B1 stimulation
Digitalis +INO, improves stroke volume by promoting free Ca+ for contraction.
Nitrates Vasodilators reduce pre & after loads while improving coronary perfusion by dilation of coronary arteries.
Dopamine High dose: vasopressor for tx low BP(shock) Moderate dose: B1 effects, Low dose: dilates renal vessels which promotes urine output = diuretic.
Oxygen Non-flammable, non-explosive, promotes rapid combustion, will reduce PVR when it is secondary to low PAO2.
SSKI (Potassium Iodide) Reduces mucus elasticity.
Calcium Channel Blockers Tx of atrial arrythmias.
Singulair(Montelukast) LT receptor agonist.
Tensilon Dx & Tx of Myasthenia Gravis.
Aminophylline A methylxanthine
Lidocaine overdose Causes methemoglobin which darkens the arterial blood which changes skin color to gray/dusky appearance due to the low O2 content, may also cause seizure.
Created by: vgflgirl