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Mgmt 342 Exam 2

process a sequence of activities that is intended to achieve some results
process mgmt principles focus on end-to-end process customer needs drive the process everyone manages a process @ some level & is a customer & supplier mindset of prevention & continuous improvement corrective action looks @ root cause process simplification reduces errors
statistical thinking all work occurs in a system of interconnected processes variation exists in all processes understand & reduce variation = keys to success
process capability range over which the natural variation of a process occurs as determined by the system of common causes measured by the proportion of output that can be produced within design specifications
six sigma quality ensures the process variation is half the design tolerance while allowing the mean to shift as much as 1.5 standard deviations
Cp= (UTL-LTL)/6S
Cpu= (UTL-u)/3s
Cpl= (u-LTL)/3s
Cpk= min(Cpl,Cpu)
capability v. control
variables data x-bar r-charts
attribute data for "defectives" (p-chart) for "defects" (c-chart)
out of control patterns point outside control limits sudden shift in process average cycles trends hugging the center line hugging the control limits instability
creative problem solving mess finding - identify symptoms fact finding - gather data; operational definitions problem finding - find the root cause idea finding - brainstorming solution finding - evaluate ideas and proposals implementation - make the solution work
deming cycle act plan do check
seven QC tools flowcharts check sheets histograms cause-and-effect diagrams pareto diagrams scatter diagrams control charts
check sheet -easy to understand data -forces agreement on each conditions or event of interest -builds w/each observation, a clearer picture of the facts
pareto diagram -helps a team focus on areas that would have greatest impact -displays relative importance of problems in a simple visual format
flowcharts -shows problem areas -compares actual v. idea process flow -allows a team to reach agreement on process steps -identify activities that may impact performance
histogram -displays large amt of data that are difficult to interpret -shows centering, variation, & shape -provides prediction -helpful in capability analysis
control chart -monitors process variation over time -distinguishes special from common causes -serves as a tool for on-going control
cause & effect diagram -creates snapshot of collective knowledge & consensus of a team -focuses the team on causes, not symptoms
scatter diagram -supplies the data to confirm a hypothesis that two variables are related -visual & stat means to test the strength of a relationship -provides a good follow-up to cause & effect diagrams
reliability the ability of a product to perform as expected over time
reliability (formally defined) the probability that a product, piece of equipment, or system performs its intended fxn for a stated period of time under specified operating conditions
reliability= 1-failure rate
failure rate = (number of failures)/(total unit operating hours)
series systems system reliability= Rs=R1*R2...Rn
parallel systems system reliability Rs=1-(1-R1)(1-R2)...(1-Rn)
reliability engineering (standardization) using components w/proven track records of reliability over years of actual use
reliability engineering (redundancy) providing backup components that can be used in case of failure of a critical component
reliability engineering (physics of failure) understanding the effects of chemical reactions, temperature, or humidity over time
reliability engineering (reliability testing) simulating environmental conditions to determine performance, operating time, & mode of failure
reliability engineering (burn-in) forcing infant mortality in semiconductors
reliability engineering (failure mode & effects analysis) identifying failure modes, causes, and effects, to recommend corrective actions (design changes, better use instructions)
Created by: 592790049
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