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PSY 150 Chapter 12

Actualizing Tendency According to Rogers, the natural drive in humans to strive for fulfillment and enhancement.
Anal Stage Freud's second psychosexual stage, which occurs from approximately 18 months to 3 years of age, in which the parent's regulation of the child's biological urge to expel or retain feces affects personality developement.
Archetypes According to Jung, mental representation or symbols of themes and predispositions to respond to the world in a certain way that are contained in the collective unconscious.
Basic Anxiety According to Horney, the feeling of helplessness that develops in children from early relationships.
Behavioral Genetics Field of study that examines the influence of genetics and hereditary factors on personality traits.
Cardinal Traits According to Allport, those dominant elements of our personalities that drive all of our behaviors.
Central Traits According to Allport, the tendencies we have to behave in a certain way across most situations.
Clinical Interview The initial meeting between a client and a clinician in which the clinician asks questions to identify the difficulty in functioning that the person is experiencing.
Collective Unconscious According to Jung, the part of the unconscious that contains images and material universal to people of all time periods and cultures.
Conscious Level The level of consciousness that holds all the thoughts, perceptions, and impulses of which we are aware.
Defense Mechanism A process used to protect the ego by reducing the anxiety it feels when faced with the conflicting demands of the id and the superego.
Ego The conscious part of the personality that attempts to meet the demands of the id in a socially appropriate way.
Emotional Stability Having control over one's emotions
Genital Stage Freud's final psychosexual stage of development, which begins at puberty, in which sexual energy is transferred toward peers of the other sex (heterosexual orientation) or same sex (homosexual orientation).
Humanistic Approach A personality perspective that emphasizes the individual, personal choice, and free will in shaping personality; assumes that humans have a built-in drive toward fulfilling their own natural potential.
Id The unconscious part of the personality that seeks pleasure and gratification.
Introversion Personality traits that involve energy directed inward, such as being calm or peaceful.
Latency Stage Freud's fourth psychosexual stage of development, which occurs from around age 6 to puberty, in which the child's sexuality is suppressed due to widening social contacts with school, peers, and family.
Locus of Control The expectation of control we have over the outcome of an event; an internal locus means we expect some degree of personal control, whereas an external locus means we expect little personal control.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) A personality inventory that is designed to identify problem areas of functioning in an individual's Personality
Neuroticism The degree to which one is emotionally unstable.
Oedipus Complex In the male, an unconscious sexual urge for the mother that develops during the phallic psychosexual stage.
Oral Stage Freud's first psychosexual stage of development, which occurs during the first year of life, in which the handling of the child's feeding experiences affects personality development.
Person-Situation Interaction The influence of the situation on the stability of traits When in the same situation, we display similar behavior, but when the situation is different, behavior may change.
Personal Unconscious According to Jung, the part of the unconscious that consists of forgotten memories and repressed experiences from one's past.
Personality The unique constellation of attitudes, emotions, thoughts, habits, impulses, and behaviors that define how a person typically behaves across situations.
Personality Inventory An objective paper-pencil or computerized self-report form that measures personality on several dimensions.
Electra Complex In the female, an unconscious sexual urge for the father that develops during the phallic psychosexual stage.
Phallic Stage Freud's third psychosexual stage of development, which occurs between3 and 6 years of age, in which little boys experience the Oedipus complex and little girls the Electra complex.
Created by: pponce2256
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