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Infants & Children 1

vacuum extractor a plastic cup attached to a suction tube, used to help deliver a baby
chromosomes rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that store and transmit genetic information
DNA long, double stranded molecules that make up chromosomes
gene a segment of a DNA molecule that contains hereditaty instructions
mitosis the process of cell duplication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosomes
gametes human sperm and ova, which contains half as many chromosomes as regular body cells
meiosis the process of cell division through which gametes are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved
zygote the newly fertilized cell formed by the union of sperm and ovum at conception
crossing over during meiosis, the exchanged of genes between chromosomes next to eahc other
XY male
XX female
autosomes the 22 matching chromosome pairs in each human cell
sex chromosomes the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the child
fraternal, or dizygotic twins twins resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova. They are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings
identical, or monozygotic twins twins that result when zygote, during the early stages of cell duplication, divides in two. They have the same genetic makeup
allele each of 2 forms of a gene located at the same place on the autosomes
homozygous having two identical alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes
heterozygous having 2 different alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes
dominant-recessive inheritance a pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent
carrier a heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive trait to his or her children
modifier genes genes that can enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
incomplete dominance a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait or one that is intermediate between the two
X-linked inheritance a pattern of inheritance in which the recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, so that males are more likely to be affected
Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, diabetes insipidus X-linked diseases
genetic imprinting a pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup
mutation a sudden but permanent change in a segment od DNA
polygenic inheritance a pattern of inheritance in which many genes affect the characteristic in question
genetic counseling a communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals
prenatal diagnosis methods medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth
SES a measure of a family's social position and economic well-being that combines three related variables: years of education, and the prestige of and skill required by one's job, and income.
amniocentesis most widely used technique-- sticks a hollow needle into uterus to obtain fluids. Cells are examined for genetic defects
chorionic villus sampling Needle inserted and obtains one or more chorionic villi.. then examines for genetic defects
fetoscopy a samll tube with a light source at one end is inserted into the uterus to inspect for physical defects or to get a blood sample
ultrasound high frequency waves are beamed are beamed at the uterus to display a picture of the fetus
subculture a group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
extended-family household a household in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives
collectivist societies societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group over individual goals
individualistic societies societies in which people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
public policies laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
behavioral genetics a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities
heritability estimate a statistic that measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
kinship studies studies comparing the characteristics of family members to determine the importance of heredity in complex human characteristics
concordance rate the percentage of instances in which both members of a twin pair show a trait when it is present in one pair member, used to study the contribution and heredity to emotional and behavior disorders
Concordance rate of 100 heredity the only influence
Concordance of 0 if one twin has it, the other one never does
range of reaction each eprson's unique genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions
canalization the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
genetic-environmental correlation the idea that heredity influrences the environments to which individuals are exposed
niche-picking a type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively choose environments that complement their heredity
passive correlation chid has no control over it
active correlation (evocative) children have freedom to make more choices
epigenesis development of the individual resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
phenotype the individual's physical and behavioral characteristics, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors
genotype an individual's genetic makeup
meiosis most chromosomal abnormalities are due to errors during this..
down syndrome most common chromosomal abnormality
child development a field of study devoted to understanding all aspects of human constancy and change from conception through adolescence
developmental science an interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of all changes we experience throughout the lifespan
prenatal period conception to birth
infancy and toddlerhood from birth to 2 years
early childhood from 2 to 6 years
middle childhood from 6 to 11 years
adolescence from 11 to 18 years
emerging adulthood from 18 to 25 years
theory an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
continuous development a view that regards development as a cumulative process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
discontinuous development a view of development as a process in which new ways of understanding and responging to the world emerge at specific times
stage a qualitative change in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterizes a specific period of development
contexts unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly different paths of change
nature-nurture controversy debate among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important in development
resilience the ability to adapy effectively in the face of threats to development
tabula rasa Locke's view of the child as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped entirely by experience
noble savage Rousseau's view of the child as naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
maturation a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
normative approach an approach in which age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
psychoanalytic perspective Freud's view of personality development, in which children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conflicts are solved determines psychological adjustment
psychosexual theory Freud's theory, which emphasizes that how parentsmanage children's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality development
psychosocial theory Erikson's theory, which emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also aquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of their society
psychosocial stages oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
behaviorism an approach that regards directly observable events- stimuli and responses- as the appropriate focus of study and that views the development of behavior as taking place through classical and operant conditioning
social learning theory an approach that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning, in the development of behavior
behavior modification procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
cognitive-developmental theory an approach introduced by Piaget that views children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world and that regards cognitive development as taking place in stages
information processing an approach that views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows and that regards cognitive development as a continuous process
sensorimotor birth to 2 years- think by acting on the world
preoperational 2 to 7 years- development of language and make believe
concrete operational 7 to 11 years- reasoning becomes logical, amounts are the same
formal operational 11 years on- abstract, systematic thinking
developmental cognitive neuroscience an area of investigation that brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
ethology an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
sensitive period a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental inluences
evolutionary developmental psychology an approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age
sociocultural theory Vygotsky's theory, in which children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of their society
ecological systems theory Brofenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs
microsystem in ecological systems theory, the innermost level of the environment, consisting of activies and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings
mesosystem in ecological systems theory, the relationship between two things from the child's immediate settings
exosystem in ecological systems theory, social settings that do not contain children but that affect children's experiences in immediate settings. Examples are parents' workplace, health and welfare services, parents' social networks
macrosystem in ecological systems theory, cultural values, laws, customs, and resources that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment
chronosystem in ecological systems theory, temporal changes in children's environments, which produce new conditions that affect development. These changes can be imposed externally or arise from the child within
dynamic systems theory a view that regards the child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds as a dynamic, integrated system. A change leads the child to reorganize his behavior so the components of the system work together again but in a more complex and efficient way
naturalistic observation a method in which the researcher goes into the natural environment to observe the behavior of interest
structured observations a method in which the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response
clinical interview an interview method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
structured interview an interview method in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way
clinical, or caste study, method a method in which the researcher attempts to understand an individual child by combining interview data, observations, and sometimes test scores
ethnography a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique value and social processes of a culture or a distince social group through a participant observation- living with its members and taking notes
correlational design a research design in which the researcher gathers information on individuals without altering participants' experiences and then examines relationships between variables. Does not permit inferences about cause and effect
correlation coefficient a number ranging from +1.00 to -1.00, that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
experimental design a research design in which the investigator randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect
independent variable the variable the research expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment- Ex: more training
dependent variable the variable the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable in an experiment- Ex: running time
random assignment an unbiased procedure for assigning participants to treatment groups, which increases the chances that participants' characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment conditions in an experiment
longitudinal design a research design in which participants are studied repeatedly at different ages
cohort effects the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of longitudinal and corss-sectional findings. Children born in a particular time period are influenced by a particular set of cultural and historical conditions
corss-sectional design a research design in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
sequential design a research design in which several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (called sequences) are conducted at varying times
microgenetic design a research design in which investigators present children with a novel task and follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions
protection from harm, informed consent, privacy, knowledge of results, beneficial treatments research rights
Created by: jlsoster