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A&P Final

scaphoid aka navicular
lunate aka semilunar
trapezoid aka lesser multangular
trapezium aka greater multangular
semilunar aka trochlear notch
CR for hand perpendicular to 3rd metacarpophalangeal joint
modification of lateral extension projection of hand fan lateral
PA oblique projection of hand, metacarpophalangeal joints form an angle of ... degrees with IR 45 degrees
projection useful in detecting early radiologic changes to diagnose Rheumatoid Arthritis Noragaard method
Noragaard method aka "ball-catchers" projection
one may miss a ... if there is rotation for a lateral finger avulsion fracture
CR for finger perpendicular to proximal interphalangeal joint
CR for thumb perpendicular to metacarpophalangeal joint
CR for wrist perpendicular to midcarpal area (between styloids)
ulnar deviation corrects foreshortening of scaphoid carpal bone
carpal bone free of superimposition on a semisupination projection pisiform
... method demonstrates carpal canal Gaynor Hart
olecranon process is part of ... bone ulna
Why should forearm be radiographed in AP projection prevents crossing of ulna and radius
elbow should be flexed ... degrees for lateral projection 90 degrees
... should be demonstrated on medial oblique of elbow coronoid process
Acute flexion of elbow is aka Jones method
Which carpal bone would be demonstrated in its entirety when utilizing carpal tunnel projection pisiform
AP oblique with lateral rotation of elbow demonstrates ... free of superimposition radial head and neck
Long and Rafert modification of thub utilizes angulation of ... degrees proximally to long axis of thumb 15 degrees
Fat pads of elbow are visualized on ... projection lateral
hand should be elevated ... degrees for stetcher method 20 degrees
... should be clearly demonstrated on Jones projection olecranon process
Sinus tarsi well shown on ... projection of foot medial oblique
Projection to examine arches of foot weightbearing
CR of AP knee on a large patient 2-5 degrees cephalad, 1/2 inch inferior to patella apex
intercondyloid fossa best demonstrated by ... projection of knee camp coventry
CR for "tunnel projection" of knee 40-50 degrees caudad
Purpose of weight-bearing projection of knee check for arthritis
AP projection of ankle, foot is slightly ... inverted
CR for AP of ankle midway between malleoli
3 bones that form ankle joint talus, tibia, fibula
Lewis projection of lower extremity demonstrates ... sesamoids
CR for AP foot base of 3rd metatarsal
stress projection of ankle visualizes ligament tears
knee flexed ... degrees for lateral projection 20-30 degrees
For oblique proj of knee, affected extremity should form a ... degree angle 45 degree
Why are knee obliques done PA versus AP patella closer to IR, less part to film distance
Routine projections for chest PA and Left lateral
CR for chest xray level of T-7
Shoulders rolled forward to project ... out of lung fields scapula
for lateral projection of chest, ... plane parallel with IR midsaggital
breathing instructions for chest xray take in a breath, let it out; take in another breath and hold it
... ribs should be seen above diaphragm for a good PA projection of chest 10
T/F: ribs posterior to the vertebral column should be superimposed for a lateral projection true
T/F: there should be no soft tissue shadows overlapping upper lung fields true
T/F: sternum should be lateral for the lateral projection true
T/F: costophrenic angles and apices of lung must be included true
T/F: exposure should penetrate lung fields and heart true
Apical lordotic projection of lungs demonstrates apices of lungs
patient has fluid in left lung. which projection would you do? Left lateral decubitus
Patient has a left pneumothorax. Which projection would you do right lateral decubitus
Lateral pertaining to side
pneumothorax air in pleural cavity
costophrenic angle angle created by diaphragm and rib at inferior portion of lung
oblique body rotated a degree amount depending on exposure needed
chest xray distance 72 inches
Two shoulder joints that should be on humerus projection shoulder, elbow
tuberosity visualized on external rotation of shoulder greater tuberosity
projection done when patient's arm cannot be abducted for axial projection of shoulder transthoracic/lawrence or Y scapula
transthoracic aka lawrence
For a transthoracic projection of humerus the epicondyles should be ... to the plane of IR perpendicular
clavicle articulates with manubrium of sternum and acromion process of scapula
degree of medial angulation for inferosiperior axial projection of shoulder 15-30 degrees
degree of cephalic angulation for demonstration of the coracoid process 15-45 degrees (30 degree average)
Position of patient for demonstration of acromioclavicular articulations upright
best projection for clavicle PA
degree of angulation for clavicle axial projection 15-30 degrees
position of patients arm for AP projection of scapula Arm abducted 90 degrees, palm upward
CR for AP projection of shoulder 1 inch inferior to coracoid
glenoid fossa is part of ... bone scapula
purpose of AP/PA axial projection of clavicle throws clavicle off ribs
two methods for radiographing AC joints Single and double exposure
single exposure for AC joint 72" distance CR at manubrium of sternum includes both AC joints
two exposures for AC joints 40" distance CR over midpoint of AC joint individually capture AC joints
contraindication to weights for AC joints subluxation, pos-op, fracture
when using weights for ac joint exposures, you need ... dr permission to use weights
projection demonstrating Hill-sachs defects Stryker Notch
barium is sometimes used to see which relationship relationship of heart to esophagus
Humerus greater tubercle shown on ... projection AP external oblique or anatomical position
position of necks of humerus anatomical is higher than surgical
intertubercle groove aka bicipital groove
bicipital groove separates greater and lesser tubercles
semilunar is aka trochlear notch
AC joints formed by acromion and clavicle
Grayshee shows glenoid fossa
special projection to visualize coracoid 30 degree angulation axial
CR for shoulder 1 inch below coracoid process
axillary degrees for shoulder; visualizes ... 15-30 degrees; coracoid- posteriorly acromion-inferiorly
purpose of axillary projection of shoulder bursitis
degree of oblique for scapula 15-20 degrees
what does scapula oblique do puts the vertebral border parallel to IR
Y-scapula oblique degrees 55-60 degrees
y-scapula shows dislocation/luxation
anterior luxation of shoulder (humerus position) forward, head of humerus below coracoid (AC)
posterior luxation of shoulder (humerus position) backward, head of humerus below acromion (PA)
transthoracic-lateral shows fracture of shoulder or humerus
positioning for transthoracic-lateral affected side towards IR, good arm up over head and shoot through rib cage
SC joint PA CR 3rd thoracic vertebra
2 obliques for SC joints 15 degree RAO, 15 degree LAO
obliques of SC joints demonstrate sternum within hear shadow
1st projection for ribs PA of chest
PA of chest for ribs purpose 3 pneumothorax, punctured lung, injury
3 projections for posterior ribs AP, AP cone down, AP oblique
AP rib done on what breathing inspiration
AP cone done of rib done on what breathing expiration
IR size for ribs 14x17
3 projections for anterior ribs PA, PA cone down, oblique (RAO or LAO)
for anterior oblique of ribs, affected side is ... away from film
for posterior ribs, affected side is down
manubrial notch aka jugular notch
jugular notch level T2-T3
manubrium level first rib
sternal angle level T4-T5
body of sternum aka gladiolus
xiphoid process aka enciform
enciform level T9-T10
head of rib articulates with body of thoracic vertebrae
tubercle of rib articulates with transverse process of vertebrae
acronym for rib articulations HBTT
upper ribs done on what breathing inspiration
lower ribs done on what breathing expiration
chest xray done on what breathing inspiration
3 ways to project sternum Lateral, RAO, Upright or laying on table shoot across
RAO distance for sternum 30"
RAO degrees for sternum 15-20 degrees
sternum position on RAO sternum in heart shadow
why are lower ribs done on expiration because of diaphragm movement
... pairs of ribs 12
... true ribs 7
... false ribs 5
... floating ribs 2
axillary rib pain also done as posterior rib projections
obliques of ribs are done to elongate side of interest
SC rotation degrees 15 degrees
posterior spine of scapula separates supra and infraspinous processes
2 names for transthoracic lawrence and trauma
For AP of shoulder, epicondyles should be ... with IR coronal plane of epicondyles should be parallel with IR
epicondyles ... to IR for lateral/transthoracic projections perpendicular
projection where intertubercle (bicipital) groove is practically eliminated Cleaves (Fisk)
degree of special projection for coracoid process 15-30 degrees cephalad
rotation for scapular AP oblique 15-25 degrees
CR for one projection of SC joints manubrium
distance for one projection of SC joints 72"
CR for 2 projections of SC joints over AC joint
distance for 2 projections of SC joints 42"
best projection for clavicle PA
projection to flatten scapula 90 degree AP
Grashey degrees 35-45 degrees
For grashey, affected side is ... down
axillary projection degrees 20-30
Apple and Garth methods show dislocation of shoulder
anteriorly ribs articulate with sternum
2 chest projections PA, Left lateral
3 ways to do a chest xray upright, sitting, supine
diaphragm separates thoracic and abdominal cavities
thoracic cavity aka pleural
abdominal cavity aka peritoneal
pneumothorax accumulation of air in pleural cavity
CR for chest T-7 (inferior angle of scapula)
why is the distance for chest 72"? minimizes the size of heart
pleural effusion fluid in pleural cavity
where trachea bifurcates carina
level of carina T-5
ET tube is ... to carina superior
chest xrays with barium are done to evaluate heart size
LAO angulation for chest 60 degrees
RAO angulation for chest 45 degrees
thyroid cartilage level C5
Lateral hand extension demonstrates metacarpals
lateral hand flexion (fan) demonstrates digits
degree of oblique for hand 45 degrees
for lateral hand, ... run parallel to IR interphalangeal joints
ulnar deviation aka stetcher method
gaynor hart demonstrates 2 carpal canal and pisiform and hamulus of hamate free of superimposition
gaynor hart angulation and cr directed at 25 degrees, towards palm of hand
semi supination of wrist throws out pisiform free of superimposition
acute flexion or Jones method shows olecranon
lateral arm demonstrates olecranon and trochlear notch
coronoid demonstrated on medial oblique
radial head and neck demonstrated on external oblique
3 special projections of thumb robert method, long and rafert method, lewis method
robert method CR perpendicular to first CMC joint
long and rafert method angulation 15 degrees
lewis method angulation 10-15 degrees
bone age or carpal growth demonstrated on PA and obliques
end stage renal disease visualized on PA and PA oblique of hands and wrists
coronoid process articulates with anterior fossa
olecranon fossa articulates with posterior fossa
folio projection aka skier's thumb
AP wrist demonstrates carpal interspaces
coyle projection demonstrates ... from lateral side radial head and neck
coyle projection demonstrates ... from medial side coronoid process
plantar dorsal projected PA
dorsal plantar projected AP
to open joint spaces in toes, direct CR ... 15 degrees cephalad
2 projections for sesamoids PA Lewis, AP holly
foot obliqued medially 30 degrees shows cuboid, 3rd cuneiform, sinus tarsi, tuberosity of 5th metatarsal
method that demonstrates club feet talipes/kite
calcaneous axial projection CR 40 degrees cephalic
calcaneous axial projection demonstrates sustentaculum tali (medially) and trochlear process (laterally)
ankle mortise projection angulation 15-20 degrees
lateral lower leg demonstrates 2 fibula posterior to tibia and anterior tibial spine
Lateral knee angulation 5-7 cephalad
proximal or distal tibia and fibula joint demonstrated on what lower leg projection medial oblique
homblad and beclere demonstrate intercondylar fossa
3 names for projection demonstrating patellafemoral joint (special projection) sunrise, seettegast, skyline
hughston and merchant projections visualize patella
Created by: dina11